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MeSH Review

Mast Cells

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Disease relevance of Mast Cells

  • Immediate hypersensitivity reflects the permanent sensitization of mucosal mast cells by allergen-specific IgE antibodies bound to their high-affinity receptors (FcepsilonRI) [1].
  • In each of six patients who experienced corresponding anaphylactic reactions after penicillin, aspirin, or melon ingestion, a wasp sting, exercise, or antilymphocyte globulin injection, tryptase levels in serum ranged from 9 to 75 ng per milliliter, indicating mast-cell activation during each of these events [2].
  • Most urticarias are induced by vasoactive mediators such as histamine released from mast cells [3].
  • Mice with mutations at the microphthalmia (mi) locus have some or all of the following defects: loss of pigmentation, reduced eye size, failure of secondary bone resorption, reduced numbers of mast cells, and early onset of deafness [4].
  • In vivo administration of SCF can reverse the macrocytic anemia and locally repair the mast cell deficiency of Sl/Sld mice [5].

Psychiatry related information on Mast Cells


High impact information on Mast Cells


Chemical compound and disease context of Mast Cells


Biological context of Mast Cells


Anatomical context of Mast Cells


Associations of Mast Cells with chemical compounds

  • We measured 9 alpha, 11 beta-dihydroxy-15-oxo-2,3,18,19-tetranorprost-5-ene-1,20-dioic acid (PGD-M), the principal metabolite of prostaglandin D2, a mast-cell secretory product, to assess whether mast cells had been activated to release histamine [30].
  • Eleven of the 17 patients had tryptase levels of 4 to 88 ng per milliliter, indicating ongoing mast-cell activation [2].
  • To test this hypothesis we have combined patch-clamp measurements of the activity of single exocytotic fusion pores in beige mouse mast cells with the electrochemical detection of serotonin released during the exocytotic events [31].
  • Abnormal mast cells in mice deficient in a heparin-synthesizing enzyme [32].
  • Experiments in animals reveal that the phenomenon is dependent on the action of proteases from mast cells stimulated by substance P [33].

Gene context of Mast Cells

  • BSF-1 activity, including the ability to enhance the growth of IL-3-dependent mast cells, was detected in the supernatants of transformed mast cells [34].
  • Among these is the ability of BSF-1 to costimulate the growth of mast cells and regulate the production of IgE [34].
  • Biochemical analyses reveal that signalling pathways dependent on PI(3)K, a critical component of Fc(epsilon)RI signalling, are defective in Gab2-/- mast cells [23].
  • Mast cells generated from Rac2-deficient (-/-) mice demonstrated defective actin-based functions, including adhesion, migration, and degranulation [35].
  • HK-1 has several biological activities that are similar to the most studied tachykinin, substance P, such as induction of plasma extravasation and mast cell degranulation [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mast Cells


  1. The biology of IGE and the basis of allergic disease. Gould, H.J., Sutton, B.J., Beavil, A.J., Beavil, R.L., McCloskey, N., Coker, H.A., Fear, D., Smurthwaite, L. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Tryptase levels as an indicator of mast-cell activation in systemic anaphylaxis and mastocytosis. Schwartz, L.B., Metcalfe, D.D., Miller, J.S., Earl, H., Sullivan, T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Autoantibodies against the high-affinity IgE receptor as a cause of histamine release in chronic urticaria. Hide, M., Francis, D.M., Grattan, C.E., Hakimi, J., Kochan, J.P., Greaves, M.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutations at the mouse microphthalmia locus are associated with defects in a gene encoding a novel basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper protein. Hodgkinson, C.A., Moore, K.J., Nakayama, A., Steingrímsson, E., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A., Arnheiter, H. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Stem cell factor is encoded at the Sl locus of the mouse and is the ligand for the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor. Zsebo, K.M., Williams, D.A., Geissler, E.N., Broudy, V.C., Martin, F.H., Atkins, H.L., Hsu, R.Y., Birkett, N.C., Okino, K.H., Murdock, D.C. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Chronic stress induces mast cell-dependent bacterial adherence and initiates mucosal inflammation in rat intestine. Söderholm, J.D., Yang, P.C., Ceponis, P., Vohra, A., Riddell, R., Sherman, P.M., Perdue, M.H. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Tetrapeptide tachykinin antagonists: synthesis and modulation of the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of a new series of partially cyclic analogs. Kucharczyk, N., Thurieau, C., Paladino, J., Morris, A.D., Bonnet, J., Canet, E., Krause, J.E., Regoli, D., Couture, R., Fauchère, J.L. J. Med. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Acetaldehyde induces histamine release from human airway mast cells to cause bronchoconstriction. Kawano, T., Matsuse, H., Kondo, Y., Machida, I., Saeki, S., Tomari, S., Mitsuta, K., Obase, Y., Fukushima, C., Shimoda, T., Kohno, S. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Update of the NGF saga. Levi-Montalcini, R., Dal Toso, R., della Valle, F., Skaper, S.D., Leon, A. J. Neurol. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Compound 48/80, a histamine-depleting agent, blocks the protective effect of morphine against electroconvulsive shock in mice. Karadag, C.H., Dokmeci, D., Dost, T., Ulugol, A., Dokmeci, I. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor. Moore, K.W., de Waal Malefyt, R., Coffman, R.L., O'Garra, A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. The multifaceted regulation of interleukin-15 expression and the role of this cytokine in NK cell differentiation and host response to intracellular pathogens. Waldmann, T.A., Tagaya, Y. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Relocation of the t-SNARE SNAP-23 from lamellipodia-like cell surface projections regulates compound exocytosis in mast cells. Guo, Z., Turner, C., Castle, D. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Cloning and crystal structure of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase. Kanaoka, Y., Ago, H., Inagaki, E., Nanayama, T., Miyano, M., Kikuno, R., Fujii, Y., Eguchi, N., Toh, H., Urade, Y., Hayaishi, O. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Somatic c-KIT activating mutation in urticaria pigmentosa and aggressive mastocytosis: establishment of clonality in a human mast cell neoplasm. Longley, B.J., Tyrrell, L., Lu, S.Z., Ma, Y.S., Langley, K., Ding, T.G., Duffy, T., Jacobs, P., Tang, L.H., Modlin, I. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Critical protective role of mast cells in a model of acute septic peritonitis. Echtenacher, B., Männel, D.N., Hültner, L. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Unequivocal delayed hypersensitivity in mast cell-deficient and beige mice. Galli, S.J., Hammel, I. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Prostaglandin D2 reinforces Th2 type inflammatory responses of airways to low-dose antigen through bronchial expression of macrophage-derived chemokine. Honda, K., Arima, M., Cheng, G., Taki, S., Hirata, H., Eda, F., Fukushima, F., Yamaguchi, B., Hatano, M., Tokuhisa, T., Fukuda, T. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Cardiac mast cell-derived renin promotes local angiotensin formation, norepinephrine release, and arrhythmias in ischemia/reperfusion. Mackins, C.J., Kano, S., Seyedi, N., Schäfer, U., Reid, A.C., Machida, T., Silver, R.B., Levi, R. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Generation of leukotrienes by purified human lung mast cells. MacGlashan, D.W., Schleimer, R.P., Peters, S.P., Schulman, E.S., Adams, G.K., Newball, H.H., Lichtenstein, L.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. The bronchoconstrictor effect of inhaled prostaglandin D2 in normal and asthmatic men. Hardy, C.C., Robinson, C., Tattersfield, A.E., Holgate, S.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. A noncytotoxic mast cell tumor line exhibits potent IgE-dependent cytotoxicity after transfection with the cytolysin/perforin gene. Shiver, J.W., Henkart, P.A. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Essential role for Gab2 in the allergic response. Gu, H., Saito, K., Klaman, L.D., Shen, J., Fleming, T., Wang, Y., Pratt, J.C., Lin, G., Lim, B., Kinet, J.P., Neel, B.G. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Impaired mast cell-dependent natural immunity in complement C3-deficient mice. Prodeus, A.P., Zhou, X., Maurer, M., Galli, S.J., Carroll, M.C. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Calcium mobilization via sphingosine kinase in signalling by the Fc epsilon RI antigen receptor. Choi, O.H., Kim, J.H., Kinet, J.P. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Tolerance to the nonbronchodilator effects of inhaled beta 2-agonists in asthma. O'Connor, B.J., Aikman, S.L., Barnes, P.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Cytotoxicity with target DNA breakdown by rat basophilic leukemia cells expressing both cytolysin and granzyme A. Shiver, J.W., Su, L., Henkart, P.A. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Cloning of complementary DNA encoding T-cell replacing factor and identity with B-cell growth factor II. Kinashi, T., Harada, N., Severinson, E., Tanabe, T., Sideras, P., Konishi, M., Azuma, C., Tominaga, A., Bergstedt-Lindqvist, S., Takahashi, M. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Protein kinase C regulation of the receptor-coupled calcium signal in histamine-secreting rat basophilic leukaemia cells. Sagi-Eisenberg, R., Lieman, H., Pecht, I. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Evidence that histamine is the causative toxin of scombroid-fish poisoning. Morrow, J.D., Margolies, G.R., Rowland, J., Roberts, L.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Release of secretory products during transient vesicle fusion. Alvarez de Toledo, G., Fernández-Chacón, R., Fernández, J.M. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Abnormal mast cells in mice deficient in a heparin-synthesizing enzyme. Forsberg, E., Pejler, G., Ringvall, M., Lunderius, C., Tomasini-Johansson, B., Kusche-Gullberg, M., Eriksson, I., Ledin, J., Hellman, L., Kjellén, L. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Substance P regulates the vasodilator activity of calcitonin gene-related peptide. Brain, S.D., Williams, T.J. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. B cell stimulatory factor-1/interleukin-4 mRNA is expressed by normal and transformed mast cells. Brown, M.A., Pierce, J.H., Watson, C.J., Falco, J., Ihle, J.N., Paul, W.E. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  35. Rac2 stimulates Akt activation affecting BAD/Bcl-XL expression while mediating survival and actin function in primary mast cells. Yang, F.C., Kapur, R., King, A.J., Tao, W., Kim, C., Borneo, J., Breese, R., Marshall, M., Dinauer, M.C., Williams, D.A. Immunity (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Hemokinin is a hematopoietic-specific tachykinin that regulates B lymphopoiesis. Zhang, Y., Lu, L., Furlonger, C., Wu, G.E., Paige, C.J. Nat. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Anti-immunoglobulin-induced histamine secretion by rat peritoneal mast cells studied by immunoferritin electron microscopy. Lawson, D., Fewtrell, C., Gomperts, B., Raff, M. J. Exp. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  38. Interleukin 3 perfusion in W/Wv mice allows the development of macroscopic hematopoietic spleen colonies and restores cutaneous mast cell number. Ody, C., Kindler, V., Vassalli, P. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  39. T cell receptor-independent CD2 signal transduction in FcR+ cells. Arulanandam, A.R., Koyasu, S., Reinherz, E.L. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  40. A single amino acid determines the immunostimulatory activity of interleukin 10. Ding, Y., Qin, L., Kotenko, S.V., Pestka, S., Bromberg, J.S. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  41. Dermal mast cells determine susceptibility to ultraviolet B-induced systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity responses in mice. Hart, P.H., Grimbaldeston, M.A., Swift, G.J., Jaksic, A., Noonan, F.P., Finlay-Jones, J.J. J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
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