The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 enhances interleukin (IL)-1beta-stimulated release of IL-6 in cultured human astrocytes.

Previous studies have demonstrated that human astrocytes express mRNA and receptor protein for group I and II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Whether these receptors can influence the inflammatory and immune response and can modulate the capacity of astrocytes to produce inflammatory cytokines is still unclear. Inflammatory cytokines can be produced by activated glial cells and play a critical role in several neurological disorders. Astrocyte-enriched human cell cultures growing in a serum-free chemically defined medium were used to study the regulation of IL (interleukin)-1beta and IL-6 in response to mGluR activation. Astrocytes cultured in the absence or in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF), did not secrete significant IL-1beta and IL-6, as determined by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Activation of mGluRs using (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG; selective group I agonist) or DCG-IV (selective group II agonist) did not affect the production of interleukins under both growth conditions. On exposure to IL-1beta high levels of IL-6 were detected. Activation of mGluR3 with DCG-IV (but not of mGluR5 with DHPG) enhanced, in the presence of IL-1beta, the release of IL-6 in a dose dependent manner in astrocytes cultured under conditions (+EGF) in which the mGluR expression is known to be upregulated. The effect of mGluR3 activation on IL-1beta stimulated release of IL-6 was prevented by selective group II mGluR antagonists. The capacity of mGluR3 to modulate the release of IL-6 in the presence of IL-1beta supports the possible involvement of this receptor subtype in the regulation of the inflammatory and immune response under pathological conditions associated with glial cell activation.[1]


  1. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 enhances interleukin (IL)-1beta-stimulated release of IL-6 in cultured human astrocytes. Aronica, E., Gorter, J.A., Rozemuller, A.J., Yankaya, B., Troost, D. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities