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Gene Review

IL6  -  interleukin 6

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: B-cell stimulatory factor 2, BSF-2, BSF2, CDF, CTL differentiation factor, ...
Georg Haerter, Wendy B. London,  Lampe,  Wichter,  Cornér,  Koelbl,  Fisher,  Bernig,  Heinze, Thomas Berg,  Thorp,  Santini,  Patel, Juliane Halangk, Thomas Lutz, Joanne P. Lagmay,  Hamsten,  Kannisto,  Deng,  Ringheim, Hans Dieter Nischalke,  Eschert,  Kolak, Hans Dieter Nischalke,  Hanisch, Heidi V. Russell,  Deng,  Koehl,  Reinthaller, David S. Siscovick, Martin Vogel,  Korsheninnikova, Baumgarten Axel,  Chanock,  Böhm, Mark Ranalli, Jacob Nattermann,  Zhu, Amanda Termuhlen,  Hefler,  Reinhardt,  Tong-Cacsire, Brigitte Banas, Jacob Nattermann,  Liljeroth, Georg Feldmann,  Nyman,  Ferrannini,  Tarkowski,  Shi, Susan M. Burlingame, Amy Axel, Bonaventura Clotet, Bernhard Bienek,  Klingebiel, Tilman Sauerbruch,  Tarkowski, Russell P. Tracy, Tilman Sauerbruch,  Blennow,  Wallin, Thomas Berg,  Gong,  Solini, Catherine M. Cahill,  Lantzsch,  Engel, Juergen K. Rockstroh, Michael Rausch,  Leodolter,  Lehrnbecher,  Flesch, Wolfgang H. Caselmann, Jack T. Rogers, Mark Danta, Christina Tural,  Burgher,  Chanock,  Grimm, Wolff Schmiegel,  Shah, Jed G. Nuchtern, Brett Hall,  Guo, Nicholas Sullivan,  Makkonen,  Olshan,  Szczepanik,  Behl,  Erichsen, Christoph Mayr,  Erren,  Zeillinger, Christian Teschendorf,  Schwabe,  Westerbacka, Ulrich Spengler,  Tempfer, Knud Schewe, Patrick McGrady,  Creutzig,  Plenz, Agathe Iwan, Jason Canner,  Nannipieri, Gerd Klausen,  Chao, Kenneth J. Mukamal,  Scheld, Thomas G. Gross, Ulrich Spengler, Raffaele Bruno, Ulrich Dührsen, Rachel A. Egler,  Sehgal,  Minthon, Nancy S. Jenny,  Petko,  Yki-Järvinen, Bethany Mundy,  Savitz,  Kumar, Frank Grünhage,  
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Disease relevance of IL6


Psychiatry related information on IL6

  • It appears that BSF2/IL-6 plays an essential role in the host defense mechanisms against infections, inflammation, and injury [8].
  • The capacity for sIL-6R to enhance IL-6 function and broaden the IL-6 target cell population in the brain has implications for the regulation of beta-APP expression in disease states such as Alzheimer's disease where elevations in brain IL-6 levels have been reported [9].
  • Depressive symptoms following IFNalpha treatment may be secondary to cytokine induction, including that of IL-6 [10].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that PTSD is associated with increased IL-6 signaling [11].
  • Our results, which show for the first time strikingly increased CSF levels of TNF-alpha but not of TNF-beta, IL-1beta or IL-6 in AD and VAD, may form a conceptual framework for further studies of neuroprotective mechanisms in dementias [12].
  • Among older adults free of clinical cardiovascular disease, specific IL-6 promoter and apo E alleles appeared to confer positive associations of alcohol consumption with IL-6 concentrations [13].

High impact information on IL6

  • A signaling adapter function for alpha6beta4 integrin in the control of HGF-dependent invasive growth [14].
  • Like HGF, InlB binds to the extracellular domain of Met and induces "scattering" of epithelial cells [15].
  • Treatment of mammalian cells with InlB protein or infection with L. monocytogenes induces rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) for which the only known ligand is Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) [15].
  • In contrast, we observed that p91 is not tyrosine phosphorylated in response to IL-6 [16].
  • Here, we report the existence in the hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) receptor of a multifunctional docking site made of the tandemly arranged degenerate sequence YVH/NV [17].

Chemical compound and disease context of IL6


Biological context of IL6


Anatomical context of IL6

  • This study demonstrates that LMP1 expression in carcinoma cell lines and SV40-transformed keratinocytes results in induction of the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6), an effect which is also observed upon CD40 ligation [25].
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential of the donor heart to respond to interleukin-6 (IL6), the present study investigated the expression of IL6 receptor components in the myocardium of donor hearts before transplantation [26].
  • While IL6 was mainly expressed by myocytes, both receptor components were preferentially found mainly on interstitial cells [26].
  • Right ventricles of failing hearts showed IL6, IL6R and gp130 mRNA levels comparable with those found in donor hearts [26].
  • On the other hand, it appears that IL-6R expression by primary hepatocytes is sufficient and that circulating sIL-6R is unlikely to play a significant role in the modulation of IL6 effects [27].

Associations of IL6 with chemical compounds

  • CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Homocysteine upregulates the MMP-TIMP pathway and IL6 release, the effect being stronger in the presence of high glucose [28].
  • METHODS: We investigated the relationship of polymorphisms in 6 cytokine genes associated with inflammation-interleukin (IL)1alpha, IL1beta, IL2, IL6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and lymphotoxin alpha (LTA)-with spontaneous preterm and SGA birth in a nested case-control study drawn from a prospective pregnancy cohort [29].
  • The reappearance of IL6-binding sites at the cell surface required greater than 8 h and was sensitive to cycloheximide, suggesting that gp80 is not recycled after internalization [30].
  • Thus, a general first step in IL-6-related cytokine signaling may be the dimerization of signal-transducing molecules and activation of associated tyrosine kinases [31].
  • The median levels of PCA, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 were 5, 0, and 4%, respectively, of the monocyte activities induced by normal plasma boosted with purified N. meningitidis (Nm)-LPS (2,500 pg/ml; net LPS-boosted capacity, 100%) [18].
  • These data suggest that the stimulatory effects of insulin on IL-6 release involve several interrelated components: transcription, intracellular releasable pool, and secretion, which are differentially regulated and, thus, determine the size of the releasable pool of IL-6 [32].
  • Further investigations into the signaling mechanisms regulating IL-6 production led to the discovery that the Tec kinase bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene in chromosome X (Bmx) regulates Toll-like receptor-induced IL-6 production [33].
  • Without exogenous IL-6/sIL-6R, injury plus TNFalpha exposure up-regulated chondrocyte production of IL-6, but incubation with the IL-6-blocking Fab significantly reduced proteoglycan degradation [34].
  • Bicalutamide showed an inhibitory effect on IL-6-regulated growth in vivo [35].

Physical interactions of IL6

  • The TNF-alpha mediated transcriptional activation of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) plasmid containing three copies of the -72 kappa B binding site from the IL-6 promoter was abrogated by PDTC [36].
  • We studied the capacity of these mutants to form an IL-6/IL-6R complex and their ability to transduce the signal [37].
  • A corresponding gp130-binding site on IL-6 was exchanged with this epitope [38].
  • Recently, we showed that the magnitude of Stat3 binding to three IL-6 motifs on the human gammaFBG promoter correlates negatively with their functional activity in hepatocytes, although these cis-elements are critical for promoter activity [39].
  • Moreover, titration of sgp130 with OM inhibits the formation of a ternary complex comprising IL-6, sIL-6R alpha, and sgp130 [40].

Enzymatic interactions of IL6

  • Upon activation of signaling by IL-6 or orthovanadate the respective Tyr-phosphorylated STAT species were now also observed in the membrane raft fraction but in a form deficient in DNA binding [41].
  • RESULTS: We report that NSCLC cells overexpressing COX-2 (COX-2-S) have increased IL-6 and phosphorylated STAT3 expression compared with control cells [42].
  • Also p27 protein accumulated which coincided with the disappearance of hyperphosphorylated retinoblastoma protein in three human melanoma cell lines sensitive to IL-6-type cytokines [43].
  • Western blot analysis demonstrated that IL-6 indeed increased the activation of phosphorylated MEK and p38 MAPK in GH3 cells [44].
  • METHODS: The effect of IL-6 on apoptosis induced by androgen deprivation in LNCaP cells was examined by cell death ELISA and Western blot using cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-9, as well as Bcl-xL and phosphorylated Bad [45].

Co-localisations of IL6

  • Furthermore, FKHR and STAT3 were shown to coimmunoprecipitate and to colocalize in the nuclear regions of IL-6-treated HepG2 cells [46].

Regulatory relationships of IL6

  • IL-6-induced homodimerization of gp130 and associated activation of a tyrosine kinase [31].
  • However, significantly more IL-7 than IL-1 beta was required to induce detectable levels of IL-6 [47].
  • In contrast to the low concentrations of IL-7 required to stimulate T cell growth and differentiation (as low as 0.1 ng/ml), relatively high concentrations of IL-7 were necessary to induce IL-6 secretion by monocytes (at least 10 ng/ml) [47].
  • IL-6 induced STAT3 phosphorylation and activation in HOSE cells; STAT3 was constitutively activated in OVCA cells [48].
  • The IL-8-induced inhibition was counteracted by IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and was blocked by anti-IL-8 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) [49].
  • Vice versa, inactivation of IL-6 autocrine loop had no influence on apoptosis levels in the absence of Mcl-1, thus suggesting this molecule as a mediator of the survival action of IL-6 [50].
  • IL-6 treatment triggered Notch-3-dependent upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged-1 and promotion of MS and MCF-7-derived spheroid growth [51].

Other interactions of IL6

  • RESULTS--Mean serum IL-6 levels, but not IL-1 beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, correlated with organ failure (r = 0.79, P < .001) [52].
  • Subsequently, the plasma is removed, medium added, and procoagulant activity (PCA) and secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured after 18-h incubation [18].
  • Moreover, addition of IL-5 or IL-6 did not reverse IL-8-induced inhibition of IgE production [53].
  • These results indicate that histamine enhanced IgE and IgG4 production by increasing endogenous IL-6 and IL-10 production via H1 and H3 receptors, respectively [54].
  • Addition of anti-mu potentiated the effect of IL-4 on IL-6 production [55].
  • IL-6 induction was mediated via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and lead to increased B-cell proliferation in vitro [56].
  • Response rates to HCV-specific treatment are higher in HCV/HIV-positive patients carrying the IL-6 HP genotype, which might be because of IL-6 mediated STAT3 activation [57].
  • Only partial inhibition by dominant-negative AKT and no inhibitory effect of IKKalphaT23A was observed on an IL-6 promoter-specific NFkappaB site in contrast to significant inhibitory effects on the AP-1 site [58].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IL6


  1. An IL6 promoter polymorphism is associated with a lifetime risk of development of Kaposi sarcoma in men infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Foster, C.B., Lehrnbecher, T., Samuels, S., Stein, S., Mol, F., Metcalf, J.A., Wyvill, K., Steinberg, S.M., Kovacs, J., Blauvelt, A., Yarchoan, R., Chanock, S.J. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer in caucasian women. Hefler, L.A., Grimm, C., Lantzsch, T., Lampe, D., Leodolter, S., Koelbl, H., Heinze, G., Reinthaller, A., Tong-Cacsire, D., Tempfer, C., Zeillinger, R. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Association of a common polymorphism in the cyclooxygenase 2 gene with risk of non-small cell lung cancer. Campa, D., Zienolddiny, S., Maggini, V., Skaug, V., Haugen, A., Canzian, F. Carcinogenesis (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Common genetic variants in the interleukin-6 and chitotriosidase genes are associated with the risk for serious infection in children undergoing therapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Lehrnbecher, T., Bernig, T., Hanisch, M., Koehl, U., Behl, M., Reinhardt, D., Creutzig, U., Klingebiel, T., Chanock, S.J., Schwabe, D. Leukemia (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Genetic variations in IL6 associate with intervertebral disc disease characterized by sciatica. Noponen-Hietala, N., Virtanen, I., Karttunen, R., Schwenke, S., Jakkula, E., Li, H., Merikivi, R., Barral, S., Ott, J., Karppinen, J., Ala-Kokko, L. Pain (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Interleukin-6 and soluble interleukin-6 receptor levels as markers of disease extent and prognosis in neuroblastoma. Egler, R.A., Burlingame, S.M., Nuchtern, J.G., Russell, H.V. Clin. Cancer Res. (2008) [Pubmed]
  7. Prognostic significance of interleukin-6 single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in neuroblastoma: rs1800795 (promoter) and rs8192284 (receptor). Lagmay, J.P., London, W.B., Gross, T.G., Termuhlen, A., Sullivan, N., Axel, A., Mundy, B., Ranalli, M., Canner, J., McGrady, P., Hall, B. Clin. Cancer Res. (2009) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of a two-chain IL-6 receptor system in immune and hematopoietic cell regulation. Taga, T., Kishimoto, T. Crit. Rev. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Enhancement of beta-amyloid precursor protein transcription and expression by the soluble interleukin-6 receptor/interleukin-6 complex. Ringheim, G.E., Szczepanik, A.M., Petko, W., Burgher, K.L., Zhu, S.Z., Chao, C.C. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Immunotherapy with interferon-alpha in patients affected by chronic hepatitis C induces an intercorrelated stimulation of the cytokine network and an increase in depressive and anxiety symptoms. Bonaccorso, S., Puzella, A., Marino, V., Pasquini, M., Biondi, M., Artini, M., Almerighi, C., Levrero, M., Egyed, B., Bosmans, E., Meltzer, H.Y., Maes, M. Psychiatry research. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Elevated serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-6 receptor concentrations in posttraumatic stress disorder following accidental man-made traumatic events. Maes, M., Lin, A.H., Delmeire, L., Van Gastel, A., Kenis, G., De Jongh, R., Bosmans, E. Biol. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Cerebral pattern of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in dementias. Tarkowski, E., Liljeroth, A.M., Minthon, L., Tarkowski, A., Wallin, A., Blennow, K. Brain Res. Bull. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Alcohol consumption, interleukin-6 and apolipoprotein E genotypes, and concentrations of interleukin-6 and serum amyloid P in older adults. Mukamal, K.J., Jenny, N.S., Tracy, R.P., Siscovick, D.S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. A signaling adapter function for alpha6beta4 integrin in the control of HGF-dependent invasive growth. Trusolino, L., Bertotti, A., Comoglio, P.M. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. InIB-dependent internalization of Listeria is mediated by the Met receptor tyrosine kinase. Shen, Y., Naujokas, M., Park, M., Ireton, K. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Molecular cloning of APRF, a novel IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 p91-related transcription factor involved in the gp130-mediated signaling pathway. Akira, S., Nishio, Y., Inoue, M., Wang, X.J., Wei, S., Matsusaka, T., Yoshida, K., Sudo, T., Naruto, M., Kishimoto, T. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. A multifunctional docking site mediates signaling and transformation by the hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor receptor family. Ponzetto, C., Bardelli, A., Zhen, Z., Maina, F., dalla Zonca, P., Giordano, S., Graziani, A., Panayotou, G., Comoglio, P.M. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Net inflammatory capacity of human septic shock plasma evaluated by a monocyte-based target cell assay: identification of interleukin-10 as a major functional deactivator of human monocytes. Brandtzaeg, P., Osnes, L., Ovstebø, R., Joø, G.B., Westvik, A.B., Kierulf, P. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Interleukin 18 stimulates HIV type 1 in monocytic cells. Shapiro, L., Puren, A.J., Barton, H.A., Novick, D., Peskind, R.L., Shenkar, R., Gu, Y., Su, M.S., Dinarello, C.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. In the presence of bone marrow stromal cells human multiple myeloma cells become independent of the IL-6/gp130/STAT3 pathway. Chatterjee, M., Hönemann, D., Lentzsch, S., Bommert, K., Sers, C., Herrmann, P., Mathas, S., Dörken, B., Bargou, R.C. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Constitutive activation of nuclear factor kappaB p50/p65 and Fra-1 and JunD is essential for deregulated interleukin 6 expression in prostate cancer. Zerbini, L.F., Wang, Y., Cho, J.Y., Libermann, T.A. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Aspirin and NS-398 inhibit hepatocyte growth factor-induced invasiveness of human hepatoma cells. Abiru, S., Nakao, K., Ichikawa, T., Migita, K., Shigeno, M., Sakamoto, M., Ishikawa, H., Hamasaki, K., Nakata, K., Eguchi, K. Hepatology (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. IL-6-inducible complexes on an IL-6 response element of the junB promoter contain Stat3 and 36 kDa CRE-like site binding protein(s). Kojima, H., Nakajima, K., Hirano, T. Oncogene (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Acute in vivo effects of insulin on gene expression in adipose tissue in insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive subjects. Westerbacka, J., Cornér, A., Kannisto, K., Kolak, M., Makkonen, J., Korsheninnikova, E., Nyman, T., Hamsten, A., Fisher, R.M., Yki-Järvinen, H. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP1 and CD40 mediate IL-6 production in epithelial cells via an NF-kappaB pathway involving TNF receptor-associated factors. Eliopoulos, A.G., Stack, M., Dawson, C.W., Kaye, K.M., Hodgkin, L., Sihota, S., Rowe, M., Young, L.S. Oncogene (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. The interleukin-6/interleukin-6-receptor system is activated in donor hearts. Plenz, G., Eschert, H., Erren, M., Wichter, T., Böhm, M., Flesch, M., Scheld, H.H., Deng, M.C. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Soluble interleukin-6 receptor strongly increases the production of acute-phase protein by hepatoma cells but exerts minimal changes on human primary hepatocytes. Gabay, C., Silacci, P., Genin, B., Mentha, G., Le Coultre, C., Guerne, P.A. Eur. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. High glucose and homocysteine synergistically affect the metalloproteinases-tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases pattern, but not TGFB expression, in human fibroblasts. Solini, A., Santini, E., Nannipieri, M., Ferrannini, E. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Risk of spontaneous preterm birth is associated with common proinflammatory cytokine polymorphisms. Engel, S.A., Erichsen, H.C., Savitz, D.A., Thorp, J., Chanock, S.J., Olshan, A.F. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. The hepatic interleukin-6 receptor. Down-regulation of the interleukin-6 binding subunit (gp80) by its ligand. Zohlnhöfer, D., Graeve, L., Rose-John, S., Schooltink, H., Dittrich, E., Heinrich, P.C. FEBS Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. IL-6-induced homodimerization of gp130 and associated activation of a tyrosine kinase. Murakami, M., Hibi, M., Nakagawa, N., Nakagawa, T., Yasukawa, K., Yamanishi, K., Taga, T., Kishimoto, T. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Insulin stimulates interleukin-6 expression and release in LS14 human adipocytes through multiple signaling pathways. LaPensee, C.R., Hugo, E.R., Ben-Jonathan, N. Endocrinology (2008) [Pubmed]
  33. Bmx tyrosine kinase regulates TLR4-induced IL-6 production in human macrophages independently of p38 MAPK and NFkapp}B activity. Palmer, C.D., Mutch, B.E., Workman, S., McDaid, J.P., Horwood, N.J., Foxwell, B.M. Blood (2008) [Pubmed]
  34. Mechanical injury potentiates proteoglycan catabolism induced by interleukin-6 with soluble interleukin-6 receptor and tumor necrosis factor alpha in immature bovine and adult human articular cartilage. Sui, Y., Lee, J.H., DiMicco, M.A., Vanderploeg, E.J., Blake, S.M., Hung, H.H., Plaas, A.H., James, I.E., Song, X.Y., Lark, M.W., Grodzinsky, A.J. Arthritis Rheum. (2009) [Pubmed]
  35. Interleukin-6 stimulation of growth of prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo through activation of the androgen receptor. Malinowska, K., Neuwirt, H., Cavarretta, I.T., Bektic, J., Steiner, H., Dietrich, H., Moser, P.L., Fuchs, D., Hobisch, A., Culig, Z. Endocr. Relat. Cancer (2009) [Pubmed]
  36. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits the production of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by human endothelial cells in response to inflammatory mediators: modulation of NF-kappa B and AP-1 transcription factors activity. Muñoz, C., Pascual-Salcedo, D., Castellanos, M.C., Alfranca, A., Aragonés, J., Vara, A., Redondo, J.M., de Landázuri, M.O. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Analysis of the human interleukin-6/human interleukin-6 receptor binding interface at the amino acid level: proposed mechanism of interaction. Kalai, M., Montero-Julian, F.A., Grötzinger, J., Fontaine, V., Vandenbussche, P., Deschuyteneer, R., Wollmer, A., Brailly, H., Content, J. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Receptor recognition sites of cytokines are organized as exchangeable modules. Transfer of the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor-binding site from ciliary neurotrophic factor to interleukin-6. Kallen, K.J., Grötzinger, J., Lelièvre, E., Vollmer, P., Aasland, D., Renné, C., Müllberg, J., Myer zum Büschenfelde, K.H., Gascan, H., Rose-John, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Cell Type-specific Differential Induction of the Human {gamma}-Fibrinogen Promoter by Interleukin-6. Duan, H.O., Simpson-Haidaris, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  40. Oncostatin M binds directly to gp130 and behaves as interleukin-6 antagonist on a cell line expressing gp130 but lacking functional oncostatin M receptors. Sporeno, E., Paonessa, G., Salvati, A.L., Graziani, R., Delmastro, P., Ciliberto, G., Toniatti, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  41. Cytokine signaling: STATS in plasma membrane rafts. Sehgal, P.B., Guo, G.G., Shah, M., Kumar, V., Patel, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 by interleukin-6 in non-small cell lung cancer. Dalwadi, H., Krysan, K., Heuze-Vourc'h, N., Dohadwala, M., Elashoff, D., Sharma, S., Cacalano, N., Lichtenstein, A., Dubinett, S. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  43. Interleukin-6 and oncostatin M-induced growth inhibition of human A375 melanoma cells is STAT-dependent and involves upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27/Kip1. Kortylewski, M., Heinrich, P.C., Mackiewicz, A., Schniertshauer, U., Klingmüller, U., Nakajima, K., Hirano, T., Horn, F., Behrmann, I. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
  44. The regulatory mechanism by which interleukin-6 stimulates GH-gene expression in rat GH3 cells. Gong, F.Y., Shi, Y.F., Deng, J.Y. J. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  45. Interleukin-6 protects LNCaP cells from apoptosis induced by androgen deprivation through the Stat3 pathway. Lee, S.O., Lou, W., Johnson, C.S., Trump, D.L., Gao, A.C. Prostate (2004) [Pubmed]
  46. Akt modulates STAT3-mediated gene expression through a FKHR (FOXO1a)-dependent mechanism. Kortylewski, M., Feld, F., Krüger, K.D., Bahrenberg, G., Roth, R.A., Joost, H.G., Heinrich, P.C., Behrmann, I., Barthel, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  47. Interleukin 7 induces cytokine secretion and tumoricidal activity by human peripheral blood monocytes. Alderson, M.R., Tough, T.W., Ziegler, S.F., Grabstein, K.H. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  48. Reproductive hormone-induced, STAT3-mediated interleukin 6 action in normal and malignant human ovarian surface epithelial cells. Syed, V., Ulinski, G., Mok, S.C., Ho, S.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  49. Selective inhibition of spontaneous IgE and IgG4 production by interleukin-8 in atopic patients. Kimata, H., Lindley, I., Furusho, K. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  50. The antiapoptotic effect of IL-6 autocrine loop in a cellular model of advanced prostate cancer is mediated by Mcl-1. Cavarretta, I.T., Neuwirt, H., Untergasser, G., Moser, P.L., Zaki, M.H., Steiner, H., Rumpold, H., Fuchs, D., Hobisch, A., Nemeth, J.A., Culig, Z. Oncogene (2007) [Pubmed]
  51. IL-6 triggers malignant features in mammospheres from human ductal breast carcinoma and normal mammary gland. Sansone, P., Storci, G., Tavolari, S., Guarnieri, T., Giovannini, C., Taffurelli, M., Ceccarelli, C., Santini, D., Paterini, P., Marcu, K.B., Chieco, P., Bonafè, M. J. Clin. Invest. (2007) [Pubmed]
  52. Leukocyte activation in the peripheral blood of patients with cirrhosis of the liver and SIRS. Correlation with serum interleukin-6 levels and organ dysfunction. Rosenbloom, A.J., Pinsky, M.R., Bryant, J.L., Shin, A., Tran, T., Whiteside, T. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  53. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) selectively inhibits immunoglobulin E production induced by IL-4 in human B cells. Kimata, H., Yoshida, A., Ishioka, C., Lindley, I., Mikawa, H. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
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