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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor C terminus modulates beta-arrestin-2 association but is dispensable for ligand-induced desensitization, endocytosis, and G-protein-dependent effector activation.

Classic models of receptor desensitization and internalization have been largely based on the behavior of Family A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor (GLP-2R) is a member of the Family B glucagon-secretin GPCR family, which exhibit significant sequence and structural differences from the Family A receptors in their intracellular and extracellular domains. To identify structural motifs that regulate GLP-2R signaling and cell surface receptor expression, we analyzed the functional properties of a series of mutant GLP-2Rs. The majority of the C-terminal receptor tail was dispensable for GLP-2-induced cAMP accumulation, ERK1/2 activation, and endocytosis in transfected cells. However, progressive truncation of the C terminus reduced cell surface receptor expression, altered agonist-induced GLP-2R trafficking, and abrogated protein kinase A-mediated heterologous receptor desensitization. Elimination of the distal 21 amino acids of the receptor was sufficient to promote constitutive receptor internalization and prevent agonist-induced recruitment of beta-arrestin-2. Site-directed mutagenesis identified specific amino acid residues within the distal GLP-2R C terminus that mediate the stable association with beta-arrestin-2. Surprisingly, although the truncated mutant receptors failed to interact with beta-arrestin-2, they underwent homologous desensitization and subsequent resensitization with kinetics similar to that observed with the wild-type GLP-2R. Our data suggest that, although the GLP-2R C terminus is not required for coupling to cellular machinery regulating signaling or desensitization, it may serve as a sorting signal for intracellular trafficking. Taken together with the previously demonstrated clathrin and dynamin-independent, lipid-raft-dependent pathways for internalization, our data suggest that GLP-2 receptor signaling has evolved unique structural and functional mechanisms for control of receptor trafficking, desensitization, and resensitization.[1]


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