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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

G protein-dependent pharmacology of histamine H3 receptor ligands: evidence for heterogeneous active state receptor conformations.

Previously reported pharmacological studies using the imidazole-containing histamine H3 receptor ligands GT-2331 (Cipralisant) and proxyfan resulted in a range of classifications (antagonist, agonist, and protean) for these compounds. We examined the role that the signaling system, with particular emphasis on the type of G protein, had on the pharmacology observed for H3 ligands. Ligands were assessed using assays measuring neurotransmitter release, cAMP, and guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS) binding. Whereas clobenpropit and ciproxifan were consistently antagonists, GT-2331, proxyfan, and imetit exhibited differential activity. Although GT-2331 and proxyfan exhibited little agonist activity in neurotransmitter release assays, both demonstrated full agonism relative to (R)-alpha-methylhistamine in cAMP assays. In [35S]GTPgammaS binding assays, GT-2331 and proxyfan demonstrated partial agonism. Imetit showed full agonism in most assays, but it was slightly less efficacious in a neurotransmitter release assay and in [35S]GTPgammaS binding at the human H3 receptor. To further examine these ligands, we coexpressed G alpha16 or chimeric G alpha q/i5 in human embryonic kidney cells expressing the human H3 receptor and assayed intracellular calcium and cAMP levels. GT-2331, proxyfan, and imetit demonstrated full agonism in all assays of cAMP activity. However, in cells expressing G alpha16, they exhibited minimal agonism in calcium mobilization assays, whereas imetit showed partial agonism. When G alpha q/i5 was used, the activity of both GT-2331 and proxyfan increased, whereas imetit became a full agonist. These results demonstrate that GT-2331 and proxyfan's differential pharmacology at the H3 receptor depends on the type of G protein used and provide indirect evidence for differential ligand-bound active states that mediate signaling by the H3 receptor.[1]


  1. G protein-dependent pharmacology of histamine H3 receptor ligands: evidence for heterogeneous active state receptor conformations. Krueger, K.M., Witte, D.G., Ireland-Denny, L., Miller, T.R., Baranowski, J.L., Buckner, S., Milicic, I., Esbenshade, T.A., Hancock, A.A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
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