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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Differential contribution of osteoclast- and osteoblast-lineage cells to CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) modulation of osteoclastogenesis.

CpG-ODNs modulate osteoclast differentiation through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Using TLR9-deficient mice, we found that activation of TLR9 on both osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts mediate the osteoclastogenic effect of CpG-ODN. Osteoclastic TLR9 is more important for this activity. INTRODUCTION: Bacterial infections cause pathological bone loss by accelerating differentiation and activation of the osteoclast. A variety of bacteria-derived molecules have been shown to enhance osteoclast differentiation through activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We have shown that CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs), mimicking bacterial DNA and exerting their cellular activities through TLR9, modulate osteoclast differentiation in a complex manner: the ODNs inhibit the activity of the physiological osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL in early osteoclast precursors (OCPs) but markedly stimulate osteoclastogenesis in cells primed by RANKL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts from TLR9-deficient (TLR9-/-) and wildtype (TLR9+/+) mice were used for in vitro analyses of osteoclast differentiation and modulation of signal transduction and gene expression. RESULTS: As expected CpG-ODN did not exert any activity in cells derived from TLR9-/-mice; these cells, however, responded in a normal manner to other stimuli. Using bone marrow/osteoblasts co-cultures from all possible combinations of TLR9-/- and TLR9+/+ mice-derived cells, we showed that TLR9 in the two lineages is required for CpG-ODN induction of osteoclastogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: CpG-ODN modulates osteoclastogenesis in a TLR9-dependent manner. Activation of TLR9 in bone marrow-derived osteoclasts precursors is more crucial to induction of osteoclastogenesis than activation of the osteoblastic TLR9.[1]


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