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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Benchmark calculations for perchlorate from three human cohorts.

The presence of low concentrations of perchlorate in some drinking water sources has led to concern regarding potential effects on the thyroid. In a recently published report, the National Academy of Sciences indicated that the perchlorate dose required to cause hypothyroidism in adults would probably be > 0.40 mg/kg-day for months or longer. In this study, we calculated benchmark doses for perchlorate from thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4) serum indicators from two occupational cohorts with long-term exposure to perchlorate, and from a clinical study of volunteers exposed to perchlorate for 2 weeks. The benchmark dose for a particular serum indicator was defined as the dose predicted to cause an additional 5 or 10% of persons to have a serum measurement outside of the normal range. Using the data from the clinical study, we estimated the half-life of perchlorate in serum at 7.5 hr and the volume of distribution at 0.34 L/kg. Using these estimates and measurements of perchlorate in serum or urine, doses in the occupational cohorts were estimated and used in benchmark calculations. Because none of the three studies found a significant effect of perchlorate on TSH or free T4, all of the benchmark dose estimates were indistinguishable from infinity. The lower 95% statistical confidence limits on benchmark doses estimated from a combined analysis of the two occupational studies ranged from 0.21 to 0.56 mg/kg-day for free T4 index and from 0.36 to 0.92 mg/kg-day for TSH. Corresponding estimates from the short-term clinical study were within these ranges.[1]


  1. Benchmark calculations for perchlorate from three human cohorts. Crump, K.S., Gibbs, J.P. Environ. Health Perspect. (2005) [Pubmed]
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