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Chemical Compound Review

Choloxin     2-amino-3-[4-(4-hydroxy-3,5- diiodo...

Synonyms: dynothel, Eulipos, Lisolipin, thyroxine, THRYROXINE, ...
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Disease relevance of D-Thyroxine

  • We tested this assumption by examining long-term growth in 18 girls (mean [+/- SD] age, 11.4 +/- 2.7 years; bone age, 6.2 +/- 3.1 years) and 6 boys (age, 10.6 +/- 4.7 years; bone age, 6.4 +/- 2.7 years) with severe primary hypothyroidism (serum thyroxine level 1.1 +/- 0.3 micrograms per deciliter [13 +/- 4 nmol per liter]) [1].
  • Lack of effect of thyroxine in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism who are treated with an antithyroid drug [2].
  • The patients were treated with levothyroxine (3.4 +/- 0.3 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day) to maintain normal thyroid function [1].
  • Maternal thyroxine and congenital hypothyroidism [3].
  • Among the 21 patients studied serially while receiving levothyroxine, thyrotropin-blocking antibodies disappeared in 15 (group 1), 7 of whom had goiter initially, and persisted in 6 (group 2), none of whom had goiter initially [4].

Psychiatry related information on D-Thyroxine


High impact information on D-Thyroxine


Chemical compound and disease context of D-Thyroxine


Biological context of D-Thyroxine


Anatomical context of D-Thyroxine

  • Maternal free thyroxine levels were closely correlated with cord levels in both groups, being essentially identical in Group 2 but slightly lower in fetuses than in mothers in Group 1 [23].
  • The mean thyroxine and 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine levels in amniotic fluid were much lower and the mean 3,3'5'-tri-iodothyronine much higher than the corresponding values in maternal serum at both 15 to 19 and 36 to 42 weeks of pregnancy [24].
  • In 19 patients thyroxine declined sharply after bone-marrow transplantation and was associated with a reduction of the serum thyrotropin in the 17 patients tested, often to levels below the normal range [25].
  • We present evidence that Pax8 is necessary for providing cues for the differentiation of competent endoderm primordia into thyroxin-producing follicular cells [26].
  • The thyroid gland develops from two distinct embryonic lineages: follicular cells (which produce thyroxine) and parafollicular C-cells (which produce calcitonin) are of endodermal and neural crest origin, respectively [26].

Associations of D-Thyroxine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of D-Thyroxine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of D-Thyroxine

  • Five months after treatment, the levels of thyrotropin had decreased and those of thyroxine had increased in all children, but greater changes occurred in the 13 younger patients than in the 14 older patients [37].
  • Three standard management plans were considered: immediate subtotal thyroidectomy; a six month trial of thyroid suppression with L-thyroxine, with non-suppressible lesions being removed surgically; and aspiration cytology followed by surgery or thyroid suppression based on the cytologic examination [38].
  • Physicians should be aware of possible product changes being made by manufacturers of levothyroxine products over the next year or so as more companies switch to the HPLC method [39].
  • Two indices of free thyroxine (T4) and four methods of free T4 measurement were compared in 85 patients with acute illness, hospitalized in intensive care units [40].
  • DESIGN: Prospective cohort study conducted from November 1998 to June 1999, supplemented with an in vitro study of thyroxine (T(4)) binding to calcium carbonate [41].


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  3. Maternal thyroxine and congenital hypothyroidism. Larsen, P.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
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  6. Pseudomalabsorption of levothyroxine. Ain, K.B., Refetoff, S., Fein, H.G., Weintraub, B.D. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of prenatal and postnatal methylmercury exposure from fish consumption on neurodevelopment: outcomes at 66 months of age in the Seychelles Child Development Study. Davidson, P.W., Myers, G.J., Cox, C., Axtell, C., Shamlaye, C., Sloane-Reeves, J., Cernichiari, E., Needham, L., Choi, A., Wang, Y., Berlin, M., Clarkson, T.W. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
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  12. Central hypothyroidism associated with retinoid X receptor-selective ligands. Sherman, S.I., Gopal, J., Haugen, B.R., Chiu, A.C., Whaley, K., Nowlakha, P., Duvic, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
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  15. Occurrence of ophthalmopathy after treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism. The Thyroid Study Group. Tallstedt, L., Lundell, G., Tørring, O., Wallin, G., Ljunggren, J.G., Blomgren, H., Taube, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Inherited primary hypothyroidism in mice. Beamer, W.J., Eicher, E.M., Maltais, L.J., Southard, J.L. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. Influence of methimazole on murine thyroiditis. Evidence for immunosuppression in vivo. Davies, T.F., Weiss, I., Gerber, M.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Axial and appendicular bone mineral density in patients with long-term deficiency or excess of calcitonin. Hurley, D.L., Tiegs, R.D., Wahner, H.W., Heath, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of thyroxine supplementation on neurologic development in infants born at less than 30 weeks' gestation. van Wassenaer, A.G., Kok, J.H., de Vijlder, J.J., Briët, J.M., Smit, B.J., Tamminga, P., van Baar, A., Dekker, F.W., Vulsma, T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia: a syndrome that can be confused with thyrotoxicosis. Ruiz, M., Rajatanavin, R., Young, R.A., Taylor, C., Brown, R., Braverman, L.E., Ingbar, S.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Increased need for thyroxine during pregnancy in women with primary hypothyroidism. Mandel, S.J., Larsen, P.R., Seely, E.W., Brent, G.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. The relation of transient hypothyroxinemia in preterm infants to neurologic development at two years of age. Reuss, M.L., Paneth, N., Pinto-Martin, J.A., Lorenz, J.M., Susser, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Antithyroid drug therapy for Graves' disease during pregnancy. Optimal regimen for fetal thyroid status. Momotani, N., Noh, J., Oyanagi, H., Ishikawa, N., Ito, K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Thyroid hormones and thyrotropin in amniotic fluid. Chopra, I.J., Crandall, B.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Suppression of thyrotropin in the low-thyroxine state of severe nonthyroidal illness. Wehmann, R.E., Gregerman, R.I., Burns, W.H., Saral, R., Santos, G.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Follicular cells of the thyroid gland require Pax8 gene function. Mansouri, A., Chowdhury, K., Gruss, P. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Impaired action of thyroid hormone associated with smoking in women with hypothyroidism. Müller, B., Zulewski, H., Huber, P., Ratcliffe, J.G., Staub, J.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Pituitary-thyroid responsiveness to intramuscular thyrotropin-releasing hormone based on analyses of serum thyroxine, tri-iodothyronine and thyrotropin concentrations. Azizi, F., Vagenakis, A.G., Portnay, G.I., Rapoport, B., Ingbar, S.H., Braverman, L.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  29. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal dysfunction in men using cimetidine. Van Thiel, D.H., Gavaler, J.S., Smith, W.I., Paul, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  30. Drug interaction between thyroxine and lovastatin. Demke, D.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
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  32. Negative regulation by thyroid hormone receptor requires an intact coactivator-binding surface. Ortiga-Carvalho, T.M., Shibusawa, N., Nikrodhanond, A., Oliveira, K.J., Machado, D.S., Liao, X.H., Cohen, R.N., Refetoff, S., Wondisford, F.E. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
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  36. Mice with targeted disruption of the Dio2 gene have cold-induced overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 gene but fail to increase brown adipose tissue lipogenesis and adaptive thermogenesis. Christoffolete, M.A., Linardi, C.C., de Jesus, L., Ebina, K.N., Carvalho, S.D., Ribeiro, M.O., Rabelo, R., Curcio, C., Martins, L., Kimura, E.T., Bianco, A.C. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Reversibility of severe hypothyroidism with supplementary iodine in patients with endemic cretinism. Vanderpas, J.B., Rivera-Vanderpas, M.T., Bourdoux, P., Luvivila, K., Lagasse, R., Perlmutter-Cremer, N., Delange, F., Lanoie, L., Ermans, A.M., Thilly, C.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
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  41. Effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of levothyroxine. Singh, N., Singh, P.N., Hershman, J.M. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
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