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Disease relevance of Hypothyroidism


Psychiatry related information on Hypothyroidism


High impact information on Hypothyroidism


Chemical compound and disease context of Hypothyroidism


Biological context of Hypothyroidism


Anatomical context of Hypothyroidism


Gene context of Hypothyroidism

  • Although hypothyroidism causes cochlear malformation, there was no evidence of this in Thrb-/- mice [30].
  • In contrast, basal TRH expression was increased in TR-beta2-null mice to levels seen in hypothyroid wild-type mice and did not change significantly in response to induction of hypothyroidism or T(3) treatment [31].
  • RBC PNMT activity was lower in males than females and was increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism [32].
  • The Dio2 gene encodes the type 2 deiodinase (D2) that activates thyroxine (T4) to 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3), the disruption of which (Dio2(-/-)) results in brown adipose tissue (BAT)-specific hypothyroidism in an otherwise euthyroid animal [33].
  • Hypothyroidism in thyroid transcription factor 1 haploinsufficiency is caused by reduced expression of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hypothyroidism


  1. Hypothyroidism after treatment with interleukin-2 and lymphokine-activated killer cells. Atkins, M.B., Mier, J.W., Parkinson, D.R., Gould, J.A., Berkman, E.M., Kaplan, M.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Pseudotumor cerebri associated with initiation of levothyroxine therapy for juvenile hypothyroidism. Van Dop, C., Conte, F.A., Koch, T.K., Clark, S.J., Wilson-Davis, S.L., Grumbach, M.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Central hypothyroidism associated with retinoid X receptor-selective ligands. Sherman, S.I., Gopal, J., Haugen, B.R., Chiu, A.C., Whaley, K., Nowlakha, P., Duvic, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Adrenergic activation of triiodothyronine production in brown adipose tissue. Silva, J.E., Larsen, P.R. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparison of administration of recombinant human thyrotropin with withdrawal of thyroid hormone for radioactive iodine scanning in patients with thyroid carcinoma. Ladenson, P.W., Braverman, L.E., Mazzaferri, E.L., Brucker-Davis, F., Cooper, D.S., Garber, J.R., Wondisford, F.E., Davies, T.F., DeGroot, L.J., Daniels, G.H., Ross, D.S., Weintraub, B.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Pseudomalabsorption of levothyroxine. Ain, K.B., Refetoff, S., Fein, H.G., Weintraub, B.D. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Diagnostic tests in the evaluation of dementia. A prospective study of 200 elderly outpatients. Larson, E.B., Reifler, B.V., Sumi, S.M., Canfield, C.G., Chinn, N.M. Arch. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Ectodermal dysplasia, primary hypothyroidism, and agenesis of the corpus callosum: variable expression of a single syndrome? Silengo, M., Silvestro, L., Capizzi, G., Lerone, M., Seri, M., Rosaia, L., Romeo, G. J. Med. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Low serum triiodothyronine (T3) and hypothyroidism in anorexia nervosa. Croxson, M.S., Ibbertson, H.K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Increased need for thyroxine in women with hypothyroidism during estrogen therapy. Arafah, B.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of thyroxine as compared with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine in patients with hypothyroidism. Bunevicius, R., Kazanavicius, G., Zalinkevicius, R., Prange, A.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. A mouse model for hereditary thyroid dysgenesis and cleft palate. De Felice, M., Ovitt, C., Biffali, E., Rodriguez-Mallon, A., Arra, C., Anastassiadis, K., Macchia, P.E., Mattei, M.G., Mariano, A., Schöler, H., Macchia, V., Di Lauro, R. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Elevated serum thyrotropin in thyroxine-treated patients with hypothyroidism given sertraline. McCowen, K.C., Garber, J.R., Spark, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Long-term growth in juvenile acquired hypothyroidism: the failure to achieve normal adult stature. Rivkees, S.A., Bode, H.H., Crawford, J.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Impaired action of thyroid hormone associated with smoking in women with hypothyroidism. Müller, B., Zulewski, H., Huber, P., Ratcliffe, J.G., Staub, J.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Decreased receptor binding of biologically inactive thyrotropin in central hypothyroidism. Effect of treatment with thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Beck-Peccoz, P., Amr, S., Menezes-Ferreira, M.M., Faglia, G., Weintraub, B.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Occurrence of ophthalmopathy after treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism. The Thyroid Study Group. Tallstedt, L., Lundell, G., Tørring, O., Wallin, G., Ljunggren, J.G., Blomgren, H., Taube, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Induction of goitrous hypothyroidism by dietary iodide in SJL mice. Li, H.S., Carayanniotis, G. Endocrinology (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Thyroid function and lipid subparticle sizes in patients with short-term hypothyroidism and a population-based cohort. Pearce, E.N., Wilson, P.W., Yang, Q., Vasan, R.S., Braverman, L.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2008) [Pubmed]
  20. Increased need for thyroxine during pregnancy in women with primary hypothyroidism. Mandel, S.J., Larsen, P.R., Seely, E.W., Brent, G.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Bioequivalence of levothyroxine preparations for treatment of hypothyroidism. Spigelman, M.K. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Evidence for two pathways of iodothyronine 5'-deiodination in rat pituitary that differ in kinetics, propylthiouracil sensitivity, and response to hypothyroidism. Visser, T.J., Kaplan, M.M., Leonard, J.L., Larsen, P.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Transient postpartum hypothyroidism: fourteen cases with autoimmune thyroiditis. Amino, N., Miyai, K., Kuro, R., Tanizawa, O., Azukizawa, M., Takai, S., Tanaki, F., Nishi, K., Kawashima, M., Kumahara, Y. Ann. Intern. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Reversible alterations in myocardial gene expression in a young man with dilated cardiomyopathy and hypothyroidism. Ladenson, P.W., Sherman, S.I., Baughman, K.L., Ray, P.E., Feldman, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Thyroid hormone regulates TRH biosynthesis in the paraventricular nucleus of the rat hypothalamus. Segerson, T.P., Kauer, J., Wolfe, H.C., Mobtaker, H., Wu, P., Jackson, I.M., Lechan, R.M. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Growth hormone-releasing peptides and their analogs. Camanni, F., Ghigo, E., Arvat, E. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Comparison of iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase and other thyroid-hormone-dependent enzyme activities in the cerebral cortex of hypothyroid neonatal rat. Evidence for adaptation to hypothyroidism. Silva, J.E., Larsen, P.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Hypothyroidism modulates beta adrenergic receptor adenylate cyclase interactions in rat reticulocytes. Stiles, G.L., Stadel, J.M., De Lean, A., Lefkowitz, R.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and oxygen affinity of hemoglobin in patients with thyroid disorders. Zaroulis, C.G., Kourides, I.A., Valeri, C.R. Blood (1978) [Pubmed]
  30. Thyroid hormone receptor beta is essential for development of auditory function. Forrest, D., Erway, L.C., Ng, L., Altschuler, R., Curran, T. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Critical role for thyroid hormone receptor beta2 in the regulation of paraventricular thyrotropin-releasing hormone neurons. Abel, E.D., Ahima, R.S., Boers, M.E., Elmquist, J.K., Wondisford, F.E. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Nonadrenal epinephrine-forming enzymes in humans. Characteristics, distribution, regulation, and relationship to epinephrine levels. Kennedy, B., Bigby, T.D., Ziegler, M.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Mice with targeted disruption of the Dio2 gene have cold-induced overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 gene but fail to increase brown adipose tissue lipogenesis and adaptive thermogenesis. Christoffolete, M.A., Linardi, C.C., de Jesus, L., Ebina, K.N., Carvalho, S.D., Ribeiro, M.O., Rabelo, R., Curcio, C., Martins, L., Kimura, E.T., Bianco, A.C. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Hypothyroidism in thyroid transcription factor 1 haploinsufficiency is caused by reduced expression of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor. Moeller, L.C., Kimura, S., Kusakabe, T., Liao, X.H., Van Sande, J., Refetoff, S. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Reversible suprasellar pituitary mass secondary to hypothyroidism. Atchison, J.A., Lee, P.A., Albright, A.L. JAMA (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Short-term triiodothyronine in prevention of temporary hypothyroidism after subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. Wilkin, T.J., Gunn, A., Isles, T.E., Crooks, J., Beck, J.S. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  37. Familial hypothyroidism caused by a nonsense mutation in the thyroid-stimulating hormone beta-subunit gene. Dacou-Voutetakis, C., Feltquate, D.M., Drakopoulou, M., Kourides, I.A., Dracopoli, N.C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  38. Hypothyroidism during immunotherapy with interleukin-2 is associated with antithyroid antibodies and response to treatment. Weijl, N.I., Van der Harst, D., Brand, A., Kooy, Y., Van Luxemburg, S., Schroder, J., Lentjes, E., Van Rood, J.J., Cleton, F.J., Osanto, S. J. Clin. Oncol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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