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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mannosylated niosomes as carrier adjuvant system for topical immunization.

The aim of this study was to develop mannosylated niosomes as a topical vaccine delivery carrier and adjuvant for the induction of both humoral and cellular immunity. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-loaded niosomes composed of sorbitan monostearate/sorbitan trioleate (Span 60/Span 85), cholesterol and stearylamine as constitutive lipids were prepared by the reverse-phase evaporation method. The niosomes were coated with a modified polysaccharide O-palmitoyl mannan (OPM) to target them to Langerhan's cells, the major antigen presenting cells found in abundance beneath the stratum corneum. Prepared niosomes were characterized in-vitro for their size, shape, entrapment efficiency and ligand binding specificity. The immune stimulating activity was studied by measuring serum IgG titre and its subclasses (IgG2a/IgG1 ratio) following topical application of various niosomal formulations in albino rats. The results were compared with alum-adsorbed BSA following topical application and intramuscular injection. It was observed that niosomal formulations elicited a significantly higher serum IgG titre upon topical application as compared with topically applied alum adsorbed BSA (P<0.05). The serum IgG levels were significantly higher for the mannosylated niosomes as compared with plain uncoated niosomes (P<0.05). All formulations displayed a combined serum IgG2a/IgG1 response, which suggested that the formulations were capable of eliciting both humoral and cellular responses. The study signified the potential of OPM-coated niosomes as a topical vaccine delivery carrier and adjuvant. The proposed system would be simple, stable, and cost effective and might be clinically acceptable.[1]


  1. Mannosylated niosomes as carrier adjuvant system for topical immunization. Jain, S., Vyas, S.P. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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