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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Non-specific effects of 4-chloro-m-cresol may cause calcium flux and respiratory burst in human neutrophils.

We examined the effects of 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC, a potent and specific activator of ryanodine receptors) on Ca(2+)-release/influx and respiratory burst in freshly isolated human PMN as well as HL60 cells. 4-CmC induces Ca(2+) store-depletion in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations between 400muM and 3mM, however no dose-dependent effect on Ca(2+)-influx was found. 4-CmC depleted Ca(2+) stores that were shared with the GPC agonists such as fMLP and PAF, and therefore 4-CmC presumably depletes Ca(2+) from ER. Since the authentic ligand for RyR is cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), we assessed the functional relevance of RyR in PMN by studying the presence and function of membrane- bound ADP-ribosyl cyclase (CD38) in PMN. First, expression of CD38 was confirmed by RT-PCR using cDNA from HL60 cells. Second, PMN from trauma patients showed significantly enhanced CD38 expression than those from healthy volunteers. In addition, although no chemotaxis effect was detected by 4-CmC, it stimulated respiratory burst in PMN in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that RyRs exist in human PMN and that RyR pathway may play an active role in inflammatory PMN calcium signaling. 8-Br-cADPR and cyclic 3-deaza-ADP did not have inhibitory effects either on 4-CmC-induced Ca(2+) store-depletion or on respiratory burst, on the other hand, PLC inhibitor, U73122, completely attenuated both 4-CmC-induced Ca(2+) store-depletion and respiratory burst. Although it has been used as a specific activator of RyR, 4-CmC has non-specific effects which cause Ca(2+) store-depletion and respiratory burst at least in human PMN.[1]


  1. Non-specific effects of 4-chloro-m-cresol may cause calcium flux and respiratory burst in human neutrophils. Hauser, C.J., Kannan, K.B., Deitch, E.A., Itagaki, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
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