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Chemical Compound Review

Baktolan     4-chloro-3-methyl-phenol

Synonyms: Ottafact, Parmetol, Peritonan, Raschit, Baktol, ...
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Disease relevance of Rasen-Anicon


Psychiatry related information on Rasen-Anicon


High impact information on Rasen-Anicon

  • As compared with control infected or CSQ1 knockdown myotubes, CSQ2 and CSQ1/CSQ2 knockdown myotubes had significantly reduced stored Ca2+ release evoked by activators of intracellular Ca2+ release channel/ryanodine receptor (10 mM caffeine, 200 microM 4-chloro-m-cresol, or 10 mM KCl) [7].
  • All tested myotubes released calcium from intracellular stores upon stimulation via surface membrane depolarization or direct RYR activation by 4-chloro-m-cresol [8].
  • In intact myotubes, these mutations did not affect functional responses to either depolarization or RyR agonists (caffeine, 4-chloro-m-cresol) compared with wtRyR1 [9].
  • In untreated Jurkat T cells, 4CmC (>1 mM) had no effect on Ca(2+) release, whereas 4CmC (<400 microM) caused Ca(2+) release after the induction of RYR2 and RYR3 that occurred after treatment with stromal cell-derived factor 1, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha, or TGF-beta [10].
  • Furthermore, BCR-mediated Ca2+ release in CD19(+) B cells was significantly altered by 4-chloro-m-cresol and ryanodine [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Rasen-Anicon


Biological context of Rasen-Anicon


Anatomical context of Rasen-Anicon


Associations of Rasen-Anicon with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Rasen-Anicon

  • The magnitude of Ca(2+) release in CHO(hRyR2) cells in response to stimulation by 4-chloro- m -cresol was in direct proportion to the expression levels of hRyR2 [26].
  • However, in CHO(hRyR2) cells co-expressing FKBP12.6, Ca(2+) release triggered by the addition of 4-chloro- m -cresol was markedly decreased [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rasen-Anicon


  1. Alteration of intracellular Ca2+ transients in COS-7 cells transfected with the cDNA encoding skeletal-muscle ryanodine receptor carrying a mutation associated with malignant hyperthermia. Treves, S., Larini, F., Menegazzi, P., Steinberg, T.H., Koval, M., Vilsen, B., Andersen, J.P., Zorzato, F. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. 4-chloro-m-cresol is a trigger of malignant hyperthermia in susceptible swine. Wappler, F., Scholz, J., Fiege, M., Kolodzie, K., Kudlik, C., Weisshorn, R., Schulte am Esch, J. Anesthesiology (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. 4-chloro-m-cresol triggers malignant hyperthermia in susceptible swine at doses greatly exceeding those found in drug preparations. Iaizzo, P.A., Johnson, B.A., Nagao, K., Gallagher, W.J. Anesthesiology (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Voltage-dependent block of normal and mutant muscle sodium channels by 4-Chloro-m-Cresol. Haeseler, G., Leuwer, M., Kavan, J., Würz, A., Dengler, R., Piepenbrock, S. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Contact urticaria due to p-chloro-m-cresol. Walker, S.L., Chalmers, R.J., Beck, M.H. Br. J. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Role of intracellular calcium in acute thermal pain perception. Galeotti, N., Bartolini, A., Ghelardini, C. Neuropharmacology (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Knocking down type 2 but not type 1 calsequestrin reduces calcium sequestration and release in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes. Wang, Y., Xu, L., Duan, H., Pasek, D.A., Eu, J.P., Meissner, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of ryanodine receptor mutations on interleukin-6 release and intracellular calcium homeostasis in human myotubes from malignant hyperthermia-susceptible individuals and patients affected by central core disease. Ducreux, S., Zorzato, F., Müller, C., Sewry, C., Muntoni, F., Quinlivan, R., Restagno, G., Girard, T., Treves, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Mutational analysis of putative calcium binding motifs within the skeletal ryanodine receptor isoform, RyR1. Fessenden, J.D., Feng, W., Pessah, I.N., Allen, P.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of the ryanodine receptor isoforms in immune cells. Hosoi, E., Nishizaki, C., Gallagher, K.L., Wyre, H.W., Matsuo, Y., Sei, Y. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Skeletal muscle type ryanodine receptor is involved in calcium signaling in human B lymphocytes. Sei, Y., Gallagher, K.L., Basile, A.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. H2O2 activates ryanodine receptor but has little effect on recovery of releasable Ca2+ content after fatigue. Oba, T., Kurono, C., Nakajima, R., Takaishi, T., Ishida, K., Fuller, G.A., Klomkleaw, W., Yamaguchi, M. J. Appl. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. The Ile2453Thr mutation in the ryanodine receptor gene 1 is associated with facilitated calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum by 4-chloro-m-cresol in human myotubes. Wehner, M., Rueffert, H., Koenig, F., Meinecke, C.D., Olthoff, D. Cell Calcium (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Detection of proton release from cultured human myotubes to identify malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. Klingler, W., Baur, C., Georgieff, M., Lehmann-Horn, F., Melzer, W. Anesthesiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Non-specific effects of 4-chloro-m-cresol may cause calcium flux and respiratory burst in human neutrophils. Hauser, C.J., Kannan, K.B., Deitch, E.A., Itagaki, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. 3-Methyl-4-chlorophenol for prion decontamination of medical devices. Riemer, C., Bamme, T., Fai Mok, S.W., Baier, M. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Critical amino acid residues determine the binding affinity and the Ca2+ release efficacy of maurocalcine in skeletal muscle cells. Estève, E., Smida-Rezgui, S., Sarkozi, S., Szegedi, C., Regaya, I., Chen, L., Altafaj, X., Rochat, H., Allen, P., Pessah, I.N., Marty, I., Sabatier, J.M., Jona, I., De Waard, M., Ronjat, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of ryanodine receptor agonist 4-chloro-m-cresol on myoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration and force of contraction in mouse skeletal muscle. Westerblad, H., Andrade, F.H., Islam, M.S. Cell Calcium (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release by 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC) in intact and chemically skinned ferret cardiac ventricular fibers. Choisy, S., Huchet-Cadiou, C., Leoty, C. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Mobilization of Ca2+ stores in individual pancreatic beta-cells permeabilized or not with digitonin or alpha-toxin. Tengholm, A., Hellman, B., Gylfe, E. Cell Calcium (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of caffeine, halothane, and 4-chloro-m-cresol on skeletal muscle lactate and pyruvate in malignant hyperthermia-susceptible and normal swine as assessed by microdialysis. Bina, S., Cowan, G., Karaian, J., Muldoon, S., Mongan, P., Bünger, R. Anesthesiology (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Evaluation of some formaldehyde-release compounds and other biocides in the mouse micronucleus test. Richardson, C.R., Styles, J.A., Burlinson, B. Mutat. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Development of a high analytical performance-tyrosinase biosensor based on a composite graphite-Teflon electrode modified with gold nanoparticles. Carralero, V., Mena, M.L., Gonzalez-Cort??s, A., Y????ez-Sede??o, P., Pingarr??n, J.M. Biosensors & bioelectronics. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Allergenicity evaluation of p-chloro-m-cresol and p-chloro-m-xylenol by non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay and multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test. Yamano, T., Shimizu, M., Noda, T. Toxicology (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Ryanodine receptor mutations associated with stress-induced ventricular tachycardia mediate increased calcium release in stimulated cardiomyocytes. George, C.H., Higgs, G.V., Lai, F.A. Circ. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. In situ modulation of the human cardiac ryanodine receptor (hRyR2) by FKBP12.6. George, C.H., Sorathia, R., Bertrand, B.M., Lai, F.A. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. A multicenter study of 4-chloro-m-cresol for diagnosing malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. Baur, C.P., Bellon, L., Felleiter, P., Fiege, M., Fricker, R., Glahn, K., Heffron, J.J., Herrmann-Frank, A., Jurkat-Rott, K., Klingler, W., Lehane, M., Ording, H., Tegazzin, V., Wappler, F., Georgieff, M., Lehmann-Horn, F. Anesth. Analg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. E-C coupling failure in mouse EDL muscle after in vivo eccentric contractions. Ingalls, C.P., Warren, G.L., Williams, J.H., Ward, C.W., Armstrong, R.B. J. Appl. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. 4-chloro-m-cresol cannot detect malignant hyperthermia equivocal cells in an alternative minimally invasive diagnostic test of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. Weigl, L.G., Ludwig-Papst, C., Kress, H.G. Anesth. Analg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Functional characterization of malignant hyperthermia-associated RyR1 mutations in exon 44, using the human myotube model. Wehner, M., Rueffert, H., Koenig, F., Olthoff, D. Neuromuscul. Disord. (2004) [Pubmed]
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