The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Reduced transforming growth factor-beta signaling in cartilage of old mice: role in impaired repair capacity.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease, mainly effecting the elderly population. The cause of OA seems to be an imbalance in catabolic and anabolic factors that develops with age. IL-1 is a catabolic factor known to induce cartilage damage, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is an anabolic factor that can counteract many IL-1-induced effects. In old mice, we observed reduced responsiveness to TGF-beta-induced IL-1 counteraction. We investigated whether expression of TGF-beta and its signaling molecules altered with age. To mimic the TGF-beta deprived conditions in aged mice, we assessed the functional consequence of TGF-beta blocking. We isolated knee joints of mice aged 5 months or 2 years, half of which were exposed to IL-1 by intra-articular injection 24 h prior to knee joint isolation. Immunohistochemistry was performed, staining for TGF-beta1, -2 or -3, TGF-betaRI or -RII, Smad2, -3, -4, -6 and -7 and Smad-2P. The percentage of cells staining positive was determined in tibial cartilage. To mimic the lack of TGF-beta signaling in old mice, young mice were injected with IL-1 and after 2 days Ad-LAP (TGF-beta inhibitor) or a control virus were injected. Proteoglycan (PG) synthesis (35S-sulfate incorporation) and PG content of the cartilage were determined. Our experiments revealed that TGF-beta2 and -3 expression decreased with age, as did the TGF-beta receptors. Although the number of cells positive for the Smad proteins was not altered, the number of cells expressing Smad2P strongly dropped in old mice. IL-1 did not alter the expression patterns. We mimicked the lack of TGF-beta signaling in old mice by TGF-beta inhibition with LAP. This resulted in a reduced level of PG synthesis and aggravation of PG depletion. The limited response of old mice to TGF-beta induced-IL-1 counteraction is not due to a diminished level of intracellular signaling molecules or an upregulation of intracellular inhibitors, but is likely due to an intrinsic absence of sufficient TGF-beta receptor expression. Blocking TGF-beta distorted the natural repair response after IL-1 injection. In conclusion, TGF-beta appears to play an important role in repair of cartilage and a lack of TGF-beta responsiveness in old mice might be at the root of OA development.[1]


  1. Reduced transforming growth factor-beta signaling in cartilage of old mice: role in impaired repair capacity. Blaney Davidson, E.N., Scharstuhl, A., Vitters, E.L., van der Kraan, P.M., van den Berg, W.B. Arthritis Res. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities