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Gene Review

Tgfb2  -  transforming growth factor, beta 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: BB105277, TGF-beta-2, Tgf-beta2, Tgfb-2, Transforming growth factor beta-2
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Disease relevance of Tgfb2


Psychiatry related information on Tgfb2

  • Our results suggest that in the setting of water deprivation, TGF-beta 2 is localized in a manner which would allow it to act either as a growth factor for or as a phenotypic modulator of the JGA and renal arterioles [6].

High impact information on Tgfb2


Chemical compound and disease context of Tgfb2

  • The incidence of RA-induced cleft palate (CP) was 48% in wild-type embryos from wild-type dams, increasing to 71% in TGF-beta2 heterozygous littermates [11].

Biological context of Tgfb2

  • Importantly, Rxra(-/-) embryos that were heterozygous for a null mutation in the Tgfb2 allele exhibited a partial restoration of the elevated apoptosis and of the malformations [12].
  • Among the three Tgfb(-/-) mice, only Tgfb2(-/-) mice have abnormal ocular morphogenesis characterized by thin corneal stroma, absence of corneal endothelium, fusion of cornea to lens (a Peters'-like anomaly phenotype), and accumulation of hyaline cells in vitreous [13].
  • The thinner stroma resulting from decreased ECM synthesis may account for the decreased cell number in the stroma of Tgfb2 null mice [13].
  • An alternative interpretation is that the delayed expression of Tgfb2 and Tgfb3 that occurs in the absence of transforming growth factor-beta1 results in the delayed wound healing, suggesting that transforming growth factor-beta2 and/or transforming growth factor-beta3 play important parts in wound healing [14].
  • The down-regulation of intracellular TGF beta 1 was observed up to 48 hours after initial exposure to retinoic acid while some down-regulation of TGF beta 2 was still seen up to 60 hours after initial exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[15]

Anatomical context of Tgfb2

  • Delayed appearance of macrophages in ocular tissues was observed in Tgfb2(-/-) mice [13].
  • RESULTS: TGF-beta2 was detected in endocrine cells, whereas TGF-beta3 was predominantly found in goblet cells [16].
  • In the present study, we determined to establish the role of TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 in mediating apoptosis in non-neuronal tissue by analyzing the intestinal mucosa of Tgfbeta2(+/-) and Tgfbeta3(+/-) heterozygous mice [16].
  • In view of the observation that levels of L1 and N-CAM expression correlated with the presence of TGF-beta 2 and NGF in the culture supernatants of immature astrocytes, an autocrine regulatory mechanism for recognition molecule expression by these cells is suggested to play a crucial role in regulation of neuron-glia interactions [1].
  • The strongest TGF beta 2 signals were found in early facial mesenchyme and in some endodermal and ectodermal epithelial cell layers e.g., lung and cochlea epithelia [17].

Associations of Tgfb2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Tgfb2


Other interactions of Tgfb2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tgfb2


  1. Astrocyte-derived TGF-beta 2 and NGF differentially regulate neural recognition molecule expression by cultured astrocytes. Saad, B., Constam, D.B., Ortmann, R., Moos, M., Fontana, A., Schachner, M. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. The TGF-beta2 isoform is both a required and sufficient inducer of murine hair follicle morphogenesis. Foitzik, K., Paus, R., Doetschman, T., Dotto, G.P. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Developmental expression and CORT-regulation of TGF-beta and EGF receptor mRNA during mouse palatal morphogenesis: correlation between CORT-induced cleft palate and TGF-beta 2 mRNA expression. Jaskoll, T., Choy, H.A., Chen, H., Melnick, M. Teratology (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Transforming growth factors-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 stimulate fibroblast procollagen production in vitro but are differentially expressed during bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. Coker, R.K., Laurent, G.J., Shahzeidi, S., Lympany, P.A., du Bois, R.M., Jeffery, P.K., McAnulty, R.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Manganese [correction of Magnesium] superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) plasmid/liposome pulmonary radioprotective gene therapy: modulation of irradiation-induced mRNA for IL-I, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta correlates with delay of organizing alveolitis/fibrosis. Epperly, M.W., Travis, E.L., Sikora, C., Greenberger, J.S. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Water deprivation stimulates transforming growth factor-beta 2 accumulation in the juxtaglomerular apparatus of mouse kidney. Horikoshi, S., McCune, B.K., Ray, P.E., Kopp, J.B., Sporn, M.B., Klotman, P.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Cell adhesion protein receptors as targets for transforming growth factor-beta action. Ignotz, R.A., Massagué, J. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibition of mammary duct development but not alveolar outgrowth during pregnancy in transgenic mice expressing active TGF-beta 1. Pierce, D.F., Johnson, M.D., Matsui, Y., Robinson, S.D., Gold, L.I., Purchio, A.F., Daniel, C.W., Hogan, B.L., Moses, H.L. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Quantitative trait analysis reveals transforming growth factor-beta2 as a positive regulator of early hematopoietic progenitor and stem cell function. Langer, J.C., Henckaerts, E., Orenstein, J., Snoeck, H.W. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Recombinant transforming growth factor beta 1 and beta 2 protect mice from acutely lethal doses of 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin. Grzegorzewski, K., Ruscetti, F.W., Usui, N., Damia, G., Longo, D.L., Carlino, J.A., Keller, J.R., Wiltrout, R.H. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Increased susceptibility to retinoid-induced teratogenesis in TGF-beta2 knockout mice. Nugent, P., Pisano, M.M., Weinrich, M.C., Greene, R.M. Reprod. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Elevated transforming growth factor beta2 enhances apoptosis and contributes to abnormal outflow tract and aortic sac development in retinoic X receptor alpha knockout embryos. Kubalak, S.W., Hutson, D.R., Scott, K.K., Shannon, R.A. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. TGFbeta2 in corneal morphogenesis during mouse embryonic development. Saika, S., Saika, S., Liu, C.Y., Azhar, M., Sanford, L.P., Doetschman, T., Gendron, R.L., Kao, C.W., Kao, W.W. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Delayed wound healing in immunodeficient TGF-beta 1 knockout mice. Crowe, M.J., Doetschman, T., Greenhalgh, D.G. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Interactions between retinoids and TGF beta s in mouse morphogenesis. Mahmood, R., Flanders, K.C., Morriss-Kay, G.M. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. The role of transforming growth factor beta-2, beta-3 in mediating apoptosis in the murine intestinal mucosa. Dünker, N., Schmitt, K., Schuster, N., Krieglstein, K. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Differential expression of TGF beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3 genes during mouse embryogenesis. Schmid, P., Cox, D., Bilbe, G., Maier, R., McMaster, G.K. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Transforming growth factors beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3 messenger RNA and protein expression in mouse uterus and vagina during estrogen-induced growth: a comparison to other estrogen-regulated genes. Takahashi, T., Eitzman, B., Bossert, N.L., Walmer, D., Sparrow, K., Flanders, K.C., McLachlan, J., Nelson, K.G. Cell Growth Differ. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Role of TGF-beta in RA-induced cleft palate in CD-1 mice. Degitz, S.J., Morris, D., Foley, G.L., Francis, B.M. Teratology (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms (beta 2 and beta 3) in the mouse uterus: analysis of the periimplantation period and effects of ovarian steroids. Das, S.K., Flanders, K.C., Andrews, G.K., Dey, S.K. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Glucocorticoids, TGF-beta, and embryonic mouse salivary gland morphogenesis. Jaskoll, T., Choy, H.A., Melnick, M. J. Craniofac. Genet. Dev. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of activins and TGF beta 1 and beta 2 RNAs in early postimplantation mouse embryos and uterine decidua. Manova, K., Paynton, B.V., Bachvarova, R.F. Mech. Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of genes in the TGF-beta signaling pathway is significantly deregulated in smooth muscle cells from aorta of aryl hydrocarbon receptor knockout mice. Guo, J., Sartor, M., Karyala, S., Medvedovic, M., Kann, S., Puga, A., Ryan, P., Tomlinson, C.R. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. TGF-beta 2 gene and protein expression in maternal and fetal tissues at various stages of murine development. Cheng, H.L., Schneider, S.L., Kane, C.M., Gollnick, S.O., Grande, C., Thompson, D., Pietrzak, E., Tomasi, T.B. J. Reprod. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential temporal expression of members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily during murine fracture healing. Cho, T.J., Gerstenfeld, L.C., Einhorn, T.A. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Expression of TGF-beta s and TGF-beta type II receptor mRNAs in mouse folliculogenesis: stored maternal TGF-beta 2 message in oocytes. Schmid, P., Cox, D., van der Putten, H., McMaster, G.K., Bilbe, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Transforming growth factor beta is required for differentiation of mouse mesencephalic progenitors into dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo: ectopic induction in dorsal mesencephalon. Roussa, E., Wiehle, M., Dünker, N., Becker-Katins, S., Oehlke, O., Krieglstein, K. Stem Cells (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. P311 binds to the latency associated protein and downregulates the expression of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2. Paliwal, S., Shi, J., Dhru, U., Zhou, Y., Schuger, L. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Transient production of TGF-beta 2 by postnatal cerebellar neurons and its effect on neuroblast proliferation. Constam, D.B., Schmid, P., Aguzzi, A., Schachner, M., Fontana, A. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Regulation of TGF beta 3 gene expression in embryonic palatal tissue. Gehris, A.L., Pisano, M.M., Nugent, P., Greene, R.M. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. (1994) [Pubmed]
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