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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Sim1 and Sim2 are required for the correct targeting of mammillary body axons.

The mammillary body (MB), and its axonal projections to the thalamus (mammillothalamic tract, MTT) and the tegmentum (mammillotegmental tract, MTEG), are components of a circuit involved in spatial learning. The bHLH-PAS transcription factors SIM1 and SIM2 are co-expressed in the developing MB. We have found that MB neurons are generated and that they survive at least until E18.5 in embryos lacking both Sim1 and Sim2 (Sim1(-/-);Sim2(-/-)). However, the MTT and MTEG are histologically absent in Sim1(-/-);Sim2(-/-) embryos, and are reduced in embryos lacking Sim1 but bearing one or two copies of Sim2, indicating a contribution of the latter to the development of MB axons. We have generated, by homologous recombination, a null allele of Sim1 (Sim1(tlz)) in which the tau-lacZ fusion gene was introduced, allowing the staining of MB axons. Consistent with the histological studies, lacZ staining showed that the MTT/MTEG is barely detectable in Sim1(tlz/tlz);Sim2(+/-) and Sim1(tlz/tlz);Sim2(-/-) brains. Instead, MB axons are splayed and grow towards the midline. Slit1 and Slit2, which code for secreted molecules that induce the repulsion of ROBO1-producing axons, are expressed in the midline at the level of the MB, whereas Robo1 is expressed in the developing MB. The expression of Rig-1/Robo3, a negative regulator of Slit signalling, is upregulated in the prospective MB of Sim1/ Sim2 double mutants, raising the possibility that the growth of mutant MB axons towards the midline is caused by a decreased sensitivity to SLIT. Finally, we found that Sim1 and Sim2 act along compensatory, but not hierarchical, pathways, suggesting that they play similar roles in vivo.[1]


  1. Sim1 and Sim2 are required for the correct targeting of mammillary body axons. Marion, J.F., Yang, C., Caqueret, A., Boucher, F., Michaud, J.L. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
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