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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cyclin T1 but not cyclin T2a is induced by a post-transcriptional mechanism in PAMP-activated monocyte-derived macrophages.

Positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) is an RNA polymerase II elongation factor which exists as multiple complexes in human cells. These complexes contain cyclin-dependent kinase 9 as the catalytic subunit and different cyclin subunits-cyclin T1, T2a, T2b, or K. Cyclin T1 is targeted by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat protein to activate transcription of the HIV provirus. Expression of this P-TEFb subunit is highly regulated in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Cyclin T1 is induced early during differentiation and is shut off later by proteasome-mediated proteolysis. Cyclin T1 can be reinduced by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or HIV infection. In this study, we analyzed regulation of P-TEFb in MDMs by examining 7SK small nuclear RNA and the HEXIM1 protein; these factors associate with P-TEFb and are thought to regulate its function. 7SK and HEXIM1 were induced early during differentiation, and this correlates with increased overall transcription. 7SK expression remained high, but HEXIM1 was shut off later during differentiation by proteasome-mediated proteolysis. Significantly, the cyclin T2a subunit of P-TEFb was not shut off during differentiation, and it was not induced by activation. Induction of cyclin T1 by PAMPs was found to be a slow process and did not involve an increase in cyclin T1 mRNA levels. Treatment of MDMs with PAMPs or a proteasome inhibitor induced cyclin T1 to a level equivalent to treatment with both agents together, suggesting that PAMPs and proteasome inhibitors act at a similar rate-limiting step. It is therefore likely that cyclin T1 induction by PAMPs is the result of a reduction in proteasome-mediated proteolysis.[1]


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