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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Using hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and decreased crystallinity to promote osteoblast adhesion similar to functionalizing with RGD.

Better materials are needed to promote bone growth. For this reason, the present study created nanometer crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) and amorphous calcium phosphate compacts functionalized with the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide sequence. Crystalline HA and amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized by a wet chemical process followed by a hydrothermal treatment for 2 h at 200 degrees C and 70 degrees C, respectively. Resulting particles were then pressed into compacts. For the preparation of conventional HA particles (or those with micron diameters), the aforementioned pressed compacts were sintered at 1,100 degrees C for 2 h. Peptide functionalization was conducted by means of a three step reaction procedure: silanization with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), cross-linking with N-succinimidyl-3-maleimido propionate (SMP), and finally peptide immobilization. The three step reaction procedure was characterized by a novel 3-(4-carboxybenzoyl)quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (CBQCA) fluorescence technique. For all materials, results showed that the immobilization of the cell adhesive RGD sequence increased osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion compared to those non-functionalized and those functionalized with the noncell adhesive control peptide (RGE) after 4 h. However, surprisingly, results also showed that the adhesion of osteoblasts on non-functionalized amorphous nanoparticulate calcium phosphate was similar to conventional HA functionalized with RGD. Osteoblast adhesion on nanocrystalline HA (unfunctionalized and functionalized with RGD) was below that of the respective functionalized amorphous calcium phosphate but above that of the respective functionalized conventional HA. In this manner, results of this study suggest that decreasing the particulate size into the nanometer regime and reducing crystallinity of calcium phosphate based materials may promote osteoblast adhesion to the same degree as the well-established techniques of functionalizing conventional HA with RGD.[1]


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