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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Immobilization


Psychiatry related information on Immobilization


High impact information on Immobilization

  • Immobilization of cortical movement with tetravalent lectins produces similar spindle defects to myosin II disruption and suggests that myosin II activity is required within the cortex [11].
  • The intact C terminus of IL-8, the molecule's "immobilization" domain, is required for the EC binding, transcytosis, and consequently, the in vivo proemigratory activity of IL-8, indicating that the described subcellular interactions of IL-8 with the ECs are functionally relevant [12].
  • Protein blots probed with labeled mRNA precursors either containing or lacking an intact 3' splice site reveal that the 70 kd polypeptide can bind pre-mRNA after immobilization on nitrocellulose and that it shows a preference for sequences located between the 3' splice junction and the site of lariat formation [13].
  • This immobilization of E1 and E2 was the result of increasing surface glycoprotein concentrations and virus budding [14].
  • The immobilization of N-CAM in differentiated N2A cells is achieved by a shift in expression from N-CAM140 to N-CAM180 [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Immobilization


Biological context of Immobilization

  • Assembly and immobilization of both nucleoporins occurred before detectable recruitment of lamin B1, which is thus unlikely to mediate initiation of NPC assembly at the end of mitosis [21].
  • Incubation of C4 with [14C] methylamine in the presence of activated thiol-Sepharose resulted in immobilization of the protein via its active-site thiol [22].
  • Cross-linking F(ab')2 fragments of MoAb 50H.19 by F(ab')2 fragments of goat anti-mouse IgG does not result in platelet aggregation unless the second antibody is bound to latex beads, indicating that immobilization, and not cross-linking of the stimulus, is critical to the initiation of the CD9 signal [23].
  • DNA damage induced a transient ( approximately 5-min) immobilization of maximally 30% of XPA [24].
  • Lateral immobilization of varying fractions of F and/or HN (after virus adsorption and hemagglutination, but before fusion) was achieved by cross-linking them with succinyl concanavalin A (inhibiting both F and HN) or with specific rabbit IgG directed against either F or HN [3].

Anatomical context of Immobilization


Associations of Immobilization with chemical compounds

  • These treatments have been designed to achieve mineralization or reduction of TNT and immobilization of its amino derivatives on humic material [30].
  • Exposure of animals to immobilization (IMMO) markedly and rapidly increases rates of synthesis, release, and metabolism of norepinephrine (NE) in all the brain areas mentioned above and supports previous suggestions that in the PVN NE stimulates release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) [31].
  • Furthermore, the results support the involvement of ankyrin in immobilizing Na+ channels in specific membrane domains, analogous to the proposed involvement of the 43 kd protein in acetylcholine receptor immobilization [32].
  • The effects of chronic stress on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system were studied by analysis of plasma hormone levels, kidney renin mRNA levels, adrenal angiotensin II receptors, and steroidogenesis in rats subjected to repeated immobilization (2 h daily) or intraperitoneal injections of 1.5 M NaCI for 14 d [33].
  • Repeatedly intraperitoneal hypertonic saline-injected rats showed plasma renin activity responses to acute immobilization similar to controls, but markedly reduced plasma aldosterone responses [33].

Gene context of Immobilization

  • CAD immobilization was mediated by its NH2 terminus independently of its DNA-binding activity and correlated with its association to the interchromosomal space [34].
  • Environmental stressors such as immobilization induce depression and decrease BDNF mRNA [35].
  • Recurrent, but not acute, immobilization stress increased NT-3 mRNA levels in the LC [36].
  • Moreover, the adhesion was resistant to inhibition by soluble TSP, suggesting that immobilization of TSP exposes an adhesive site that is cryptic on TSP in solution [37].
  • This was associated with a reduction in endothelial MCP-1 secretion and GRO-alpha immobilization [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Immobilization


  1. Engineering a mouse metallothionein on the cell surface of Ralstonia eutropha CH34 for immobilization of heavy metals in soil. Valls, M., Atrian, S., de Lorenzo, V., Fernández, L.A. Nat. Biotechnol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Norepinephrine turnover in the heart and spleen of the cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster. Sole, M.J., Lo, C.M., Laird, C.W., Sonnenblick, E.H., Wurtman, R.J. Circ. Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Lateral mobility of both envelope proteins (F and HN) of Sendai virus in the cell membrane is essential for cell-cell fusion. Henis, Y.I., Herman-Barhom, Y., Aroeti, B., Gutman, O. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Parathyroid hormone and mechanical usage have a synergistic effect in rat tibial diaphyseal cortical bone. Ma, Y., Jee, W.S., Yuan, Z., Wei, W., Chen, H., Pun, S., Liang, H., Lin, C. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Skin necrosis and protein C deficiency associated with vitamin K depletion in a patient with renal failure. Soundararajan, R., Leehey, D.J., Yu, A.W., Ing, T.S., Miller, J.B. Am. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of physical activity and immobilization on plasma digoxin concentration and renal digoxin clearance. Pedersen, K.E., Madsen, J., Kjaer, K., Klitgaard, N.A., Hvidt, S. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Rat hippocampal lactate efflux during electroconvulsive shock or stress is differently dependent on entorhinal cortex and adrenal integrity. Krugers, H.J., Jaarsma, D., Korf, J. J. Neurochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Subchronic treatment with imipramine ameliorates the decreased number in neuropeptide Y-positive cells in the hippocampus of learned helplessness rats. Ishida, H., Shirayama, Y., Iwata, M., Kawahara, R. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Immobilization of heparin on polylactide for application to degradable biomaterials in contact with blood. Seifert, B., Groth, T., Herrmann, K., Romaniuk, P. Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. The effects of immobilization stress on serum triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol in male rats after dietary modifications. Hershock, D., Vogel, W.H. Life Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Myosin II-dependent cortical movement is required for centrosome separation and positioning during mitotic spindle assembly. Rosenblatt, J., Cramer, L.P., Baum, B., McGee, K.M. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Transcytosis and surface presentation of IL-8 by venular endothelial cells. Middleton, J., Neil, S., Wintle, J., Clark-Lewis, I., Moore, H., Lam, C., Auer, M., Hub, E., Rot, A. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. A protein associated with small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles recognizes the 3' splice site of premessenger RNA. Gerke, V., Steitz, J.A. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Fluorescence photobleaching recovery measurements reveal differences in envelopment of Sindbis and vesicular stomatitis viruses. Johnson, D.C., Schlesinger, M.J., Elson, E.L. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Differentiation state-dependent surface mobilities of two forms of the neural cell adhesion molecule. Pollerberg, G.E., Schachner, M., Davoust, J. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. On-line monitoring of extracellular brain glucose using microdialysis and a NADPH-linked enzymatic assay. van der Kuil, J.H., Korf, J. J. Neurochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Infrared spectroscopic studies on the phosphatidylserine bilayer interacting with calcium ion: effect of cholesterol. Choi, S., Ware, W., Lauterbach, S.R., Phillips, W.M. Biochemistry (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Tolerance and cross-tolerance to stress-induced increases in plasma Met-enkephalin in rats with adaptively increased resting secretion. Van Loon, G.R., Pierzchala, K., Houdi, A.A., Kvetnanský, R., Zeman, P. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Substance P signaling contributes to the vascular and nociceptive abnormalities observed in a tibial fracture rat model of complex regional pain syndrome type I. Guo, T.Z., Offley, S.C., Boyd, E.A., Jacobs, C.R., Kingery, W.S. Pain (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. [3H]proline incorporation and hydroxyproline concentration in articular cartilage during the development of osteoarthritis caused by immobilization. A study in vivo with rabbits. Videman, T., Eronen, I., Candolin, T. Biochem. J. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Nuclear pore complexes form immobile networks and have a very low turnover in live mammalian cells. Daigle, N., Beaudouin, J., Hartnell, L., Imreh, G., Hallberg, E., Lippincott-Schwartz, J., Ellenberg, J. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Sequence determination of the thiolester site of the fourth component of human complement. Harrison, R.A., Thomas, M.L., Tack, B.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Platelet activation by immobilized monoclonal antibody: evidence for a CD9 proximal signal. Griffith, L., Slupsky, J., Seehafer, J., Boshkov, L., Shaw, A.R. Blood (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein loads as a separate factor onto DNA lesions. Rademakers, S., Volker, M., Hoogstraten, D., Nigg, A.L., Moné, M.J., Van Zeeland, A.A., Hoeijmakers, J.H., Houtsmuller, A.B., Vermeulen, W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. The 87K postsynaptic membrane protein from Torpedo is a protein-tyrosine kinase substrate homologous to dystrophin. Wagner, K.R., Cohen, J.B., Huganir, R.L. Neuron (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Centrosome-associated Chk1 prevents premature activation of cyclin-B-Cdk1 kinase. Krämer, A., Mailand, N., Lukas, C., Syljuåsen, R.G., Wilkinson, C.J., Nigg, E.A., Bartek, J., Lukas, J. Nat. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. The limulus clotting reaction. Iwanaga, S. Curr. Opin. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Changes in liver and gastric mucosal hexosamine synthesis after restraint. Sander, L.A., Chandler, A.M., JohnsonLR, n.u.l.l. Gastroenterology (1975) [Pubmed]
  29. A neurotensin antagonist, SR 48692, inhibits colonic responses to immobilization stress in rats. Castagliuolo, I., Leeman, S.E., Bartolak-Suki, E., Nikulasson, S., Qiu, B., Carraway, R.E., Pothoulakis, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Biological degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. Esteve-Núñez, A., Caballero, A., Ramos, J.L. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Stress-induced norepinephrine release in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and pituitary-adrenocortical and sympathoadrenal activity: in vivo microdialysis studies. Pacak, K., Palkovits, M., Kopin, I.J., Goldstein, D.S. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Distribution of Na+ channels and ankyrin in neuromuscular junctions is complementary to that of acetylcholine receptors and the 43 kd protein. Flucher, B.E., Daniels, M.P. Neuron (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. Hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism after chronic stress in the rat. Aguilera, G., Kiss, A., Sunar-Akbasak, B. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Contrasting nuclear dynamics of the caspase-activated DNase (CAD) in dividing and apoptotic cells. Lechardeur, D., Xu, M., Lukacs, G.L. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Neurotrophins and depression. Altar, C.A. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Stress and antidepressants differentially regulate neurotrophin 3 mRNA expression in the locus coeruleus. Smith, M.A., Makino, S., Altemus, M., Michelson, D., Hong, S.K., Kvetnansky, R., Post, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Glycoprotein IV-independent adhesion of sickle red blood cells to immobilized thrombospondin under flow conditions. Joneckis, C.C., Shock, D.D., Cunningham, M.L., Orringer, E.P., Parise, L.V. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. Monocyte arrest and transmigration on inflamed endothelium in shear flow is inhibited by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of IkappaB-alpha. Weber, K.S., Draude, G., Erl, W., de Martin, R., Weber, C. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Stimulation of bone formation and prevention of bone loss by prostaglandin E EP4 receptor activation. Yoshida, K., Oida, H., Kobayashi, T., Maruyama, T., Tanaka, M., Katayama, T., Yamaguchi, K., Segi, E., Tsuboyama, T., Matsushita, M., Ito, K., Ito, Y., Sugimoto, Y., Ushikubi, F., Ohuchida, S., Kondo, K., Nakamura, T., Narumiya, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  40. The Bra/Brb alloantigen system on human platelets. Kiefel, V., Santoso, S., Katzmann, B., Mueller-Eckhardt, C. Blood (1989) [Pubmed]
  41. Max(a), a new low-frequency platelet-specific antigen localized on glycoprotein IIb, is associated with neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Noris, P., Simsek, S., de Bruijne-Admiraal, L.G., Porcelijn, L., Huiskes, E., van der Vlist, G.J., van Leeuwen, E.F., van der Schoot, C.E., von dem Borne, A.E. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  42. Molecular characterization of antigenic polymorphisms (Ond(a) and Mart(a)) of the beta 2 family recognized by human leukocyte alloantisera. Simsek, S., van der Schoot, C.E., Daams, M., Huiskes, E., Clay, M., McCullough, J., van Dalen, C., Stroncek, D., von dem Borne, A.E. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
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