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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Biological monitoring of isocyanates and related amines. III. Test chamber exposure of humans to toluene diisocyanate.

Five men were exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) atmospheres for 7.5 h. The TDI atmospheres were generated by a gas-phase permeation method, and the exposures were performed in an 8-m3 stainless-steel test chamber. The mean air concentration of TDI was ca. 40 micrograms/m3, which corresponds to the threshold limit value (TLV) of Sweden. The inhaled doses of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI were ca. 120 micrograms. TDI in the test chamber air was determined by an HPLC method using the 9-(N-methylaminomethyl)-anthracene reagent and by a continuous-monitoring filter-tape instrument. After hydrolysis of plasma and urine, the related amines, 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine 2,4-, and 2,6-TDA), were determined as pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) derivatives by capillary gas-chromatography using selected ion monitoring (SIM) in the electron-impact mode. The urinary elimination of the TDAs showed a possible biphasic pattern, with rapid first phases for 2,4-TDA (mean t1/2 for the concentration in urine, 1.9 h) and for 2,6-TDA (mean t1/2 for the concentration in urine, 1.6 h). The cumulative amount of 2,4-TDA excreted in urine within 28 h ranged from 8% to 14% of the estimated dose of 2,4-TDI, and the cumulative amount of 2,6-TDA in urine ranged from 14% to 18% of the 2,6-TDI dose. The average urinary level of 2,4-TDA was 5 micrograms/l in the 6 to 8-h sample (range 2.8-9.6 micrograms/l), and the corresponding value for 2,6-TDA was 8.6 micrograms/l (range, 5.6-16.6 micrograms/l). Biological monitoring of exposure to 2,4- and 2,6-TDI by analysis of 2,4- and 2,6-TDA in urine is feasible.[1]


  1. Biological monitoring of isocyanates and related amines. III. Test chamber exposure of humans to toluene diisocyanate. Skarping, G., Brorson, T., Sangö, C. International archives of occupational and environmental health. (1991) [Pubmed]
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