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Gene Review

PRSS21  -  protease, serine, 21 (testisin)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ESP-1, ESP1, Eosinophil serine protease 1, Serine protease 21, TEST1, ...
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Disease relevance of PRSS21

  • The Genotype IBD Sharing Test suggested that this obesity-associated ENPP1 risk haplotype contributes to the observed chromosome 6q linkage with childhood obesity [1].
  • Cancer genetics. Test could yield improved colon cancer detection [2].
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change over time in scores on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test as a function of APOE genotype, subclinical CVD, and diabetes mellitus [3].
  • The presence of even very low levels of MDR1 mRNA correlated with the lack of response to MDR regimens in these tumor types (P < .035 for ovarian carcinomas, P < .029 for SCLCs, and P < .0005 for both tumor types; Fisher's Exact Test) [4].
  • Serological evidence for H. pylori infection was less frequent in HLA-DQB1*0301-positive patients with gastric adenocarcinoma compared with HLA-DQB1*0301-negative patients (52% vs. 88%; Fisher's Exact Test; P = 0.007) [5].

Psychiatry related information on PRSS21

  • Tests included the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) in 33 children and the visual-association and auditory-association subtests of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities in 38 and 37 children, respectively [6].
  • Letter: Test for globus hystericus [7].
  • On the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, long-term users recalled significantly fewer words than either shorter-term users (P =.001) or controls (P =.005); there was no difference between shorter-term users and controls [8].
  • The volume index of alcohol consumption and the Michigan Alcoholic Screening Test were used to define alcoholic women [9].
  • Further evidence for dementia of the prefrontal type in schizophrenia? A controlled study of teaching the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [10].

High impact information on PRSS21

  • This reduction was related to the severity of the negative symptoms (for instance, emotional withdrawal) and to poor performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. We propose that dysfunction of D1R signalling in the prefrontal cortex may contribute to the negative symptoms and cognitive deficits seen in schizophrenia [11].
  • Almost 40,000 selected seventh-grade students from the Middle Atlantic region of the United States took the College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test as part of the Johns Hopkins regional talent search in 1980, 1981, and 1982 [12].
  • A substantial sex difference in mathematical reasoning ability (score on the mathematics test of the Scholastic Aptitude Test) in favor of boys was found in a study of 9927 intellectually gifted junior high school students [13].
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Test sensitivity and specificity, receiver operating characteristic curves, and positive and negative predictive values at different pretest prevalences using plasma free metanephrines, plasma catecholamines, urinary catecholamines, urinary total and fractionated metanephrines, and urinary vanillylmandelic acid [14].
  • The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, which probes the ability to shift attention from one category of stimulus attributes to another (shifting cognitive sets), is the most common paradigm used to detect human frontal lobe pathology [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of PRSS21

  • The Personal Orientation Inventory, Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, Levenson's Internal and Powerful Others Locus of Control Scales, and the Embedded Figures Test were administered to matched groups of 35 bipolar manic-depressives and 35 normal comparison subjects [16].
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We used the Buschke Selective Reminding Test to assess verbal learning during a 5-hour period after placebo or lorazepam administration [17].
  • METHODS: Thirty-seven cocaine abusers and 27 control subjects were administered the following memory and mood measures: California Verbal Learning Test, recall of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Pursuit Rotor Task, and Profile of Mood States at 4 visits (within 72 hours of admission and at 10, 21, and 45 days following abstinence) [18].
  • Verbal memory performance was assessed with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. RESULTS: Mean cortical [(123)I]beta-CIT-labeled 5-HT transporter density was significantly lower in recent MDMA users than in controls (1.17 vs. 1.28 [-9%]) but not in ex-MDMA users (1.24 vs. 1.28 [-3%]) [19].
  • Psychometrics included the Wender Utah Rating Scale for symptoms of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Veterans also completed the Combat Exposure Scale and subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised [20].

Biological context of PRSS21


Anatomical context of PRSS21

  • On the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test the patients with schizophrenia obtained significantly fewer categories than either temporal lobe group, but were not significantly more perseverative [24].
  • RESULTS: Deficit patients performed more poorly than nondeficit patients on two frontal lobe measures, the Stroop Color-Word Interference and Trails Making B tests, and one parietal lobe measure, the Mooney Faces Closure Test. There were no differences in performance on the temporal lobe measures between the two groups [25].
  • Large amounts of an oxidizing species with properties identical to those described here have been characterized recently in polymorphonuclear leukocytes [S. J. Weiss, M. B. Lampert, and S. T. Test. Science (Wash. DC), 222: 625-627, 1983] [26].
  • Two subgroups of left-handed males were identified on the basis of their differing speech lateralization patterns, which were inferred from results of the Fused Dichotic Words Test. These individuals then underwent MRI in order to obtain area measurements of the left and right planum temporale and the midsagittal corpus callosum [27].
  • Neuropsychological tests that have been developed to measure this form of cognitive flexibility, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, have reliably demonstrated that individuals with lesions in regions of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia have difficulty generating a cognitive set and altering rule-governed behavior [28].

Associations of PRSS21 with chemical compounds

  • A step increase in glucose uptake alone, test 1, phase 2, (0.469 +/- 0.039 to 1.069 +/- 0.094 g/min) caused an increase in energy expenditure of 0.14 +/- 0.03 kcal/min (thermic effect 5.9 +/- 1.1%) [29].
  • Among subgroups of depressed alcoholics, secondary compared with primary depressives were more often divorced, of lower social status, with an earlier onset of alcoholism, and higher Michigan Alcohol Screening Test scores [30].
  • RESULTS: On the Degraded Stimulus-Continuous Performance Test and the Trail-Making Test B-Adolescent Version, the parents of COS probands performed significantly worse than the parents of CC and ADHD probands, who did not differ significantly from each other [31].
  • In 148 patients, of 5 a priori predictors, the percent savings from immediate to delayed recall on the Selective Reminding Test and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Digit Symbol Test were the strongest predictors of time to conversion [32].
  • RESULTS: Analysis of performance on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test revealed that both groups improved in their recall over repeated administrations, though the control group recalled significantly more of the information than cocaine subjects during the 45-day interval [18].

Other interactions of PRSS21


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PRSS21

  • In the year following the screening test 1 carcinoma (stage C) has presented in the group which accepted the test, and 10 carcinomas (4 stage B, 4 stage C, 2 stage D) have presented in the control group [38].
  • The relative risk (RR) of remaining symptomatic after 1 year was reduced with endoscopy compared with "test and treat" (RR = 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-0.99). "Test and treat" cost 389 dollars less per patient (95% CI: 275-502 dollars) [39].
  • Cerebral blood flow distribution was depicted by single photon emission computed tomography at rest and during activation with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. A significant relative activation deficit in the left inferior-prefrontal region was revealed during the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in the patient group [40].
  • Instruments included a diagnostic interview (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R: Psychotic Disorders), the Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale [41].
  • Left ventricular (LV) volumes and global and regional function were assessed by radionuclide ventriculography at rest and during two 5-minute standardized mental stress tasks (simulated public speaking and the Stroop Color-Word Test), administered in random order [42].


  1. Variants of ENPP1 are associated with childhood and adult obesity and increase the risk of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. Meyre, D., Bouatia-Naji, N., Tounian, A., Samson, C., Lecoeur, C., Vatin, V., Ghoussaini, M., Wachter, C., Hercberg, S., Charpentier, G., Patsch, W., Pattou, F., Charles, M.A., Tounian, P., Clément, K., Jouret, B., Weill, J., Maddux, B.A., Goldfine, I.D., Walley, A., Boutin, P., Dina, C., Froguel, P. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Cancer genetics. Test could yield improved colon cancer detection. Marx, J. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. The role of APOE epsilon4 in modulating effects of other risk factors for cognitive decline in elderly persons. Haan, M.N., Shemanski, L., Jagust, W.J., Manolio, T.A., Kuller, L. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Clinical correlates of MDR1 (P-glycoprotein) gene expression in ovarian and small-cell lung carcinomas. Holzmayer, T.A., Hilsenbeck, S., Von Hoff, D.D., Roninson, I.B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Association of gastric adenocarcinoma with the HLA class II gene DQB10301. Lee, J.E., Lowy, A.M., Thompson, W.A., Lu, M., Loflin, P.T., Skibber, J.M., Evans, D.B., Curley, S.A., Mansfield, P.F., Reveille, J.D. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Cognitive function and age at repair of transposition of the great arteries in children. Newburger, J.W., Silbert, A.R., Buckley, L.P., Fyler, D.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Letter: Test for globus hystericus. O'Brien, G.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Cognitive functioning of long-term heavy cannabis users seeking treatment. Solowij, N., Stephens, R.S., Roffman, R.A., Babor, T., Kadden, R., Miller, M., Christiansen, K., McRee, B., Vendetti, J. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Zinc status of pregnant alcoholic women: a determinant of fetal outcome. Flynn, A., Miller, S.I., Martier, S.S., Golden, N.L., Sokol, R.J., Del Villano, B.C. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Further evidence for dementia of the prefrontal type in schizophrenia? A controlled study of teaching the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Goldberg, T.E., Weinberger, D.R., Berman, K.F., Pliskin, N.H., Podd, M.H. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Decreased prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors in schizophrenia revealed by PET. Okubo, Y., Suhara, T., Suzuki, K., Kobayashi, K., Inoue, O., Terasaki, O., Someya, Y., Sassa, T., Sudo, Y., Matsushima, E., Iyo, M., Tateno, Y., Toru, M. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability: more facts. Benbow, C.P., Stanley, J.C. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Sex differences in mathematical ability: fact or artifact? Benbow, C.P., Stanley, J.C. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: which test is best? Lenders, J.W., Pacak, K., Walther, M.M., Linehan, W.M., Mannelli, M., Friberg, P., Keiser, H.R., Goldstein, D.S., Eisenhofer, G. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Transient activation of inferior prefrontal cortex during cognitive set shifting. Konishi, S., Nakajima, K., Uchida, I., Kameyama, M., Nakahara, K., Sekihara, K., Miyashita, Y. Nat. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Psychological functioning of bipolar manic-depressives in remission. MacVane, J.R., Lange, J.D., Brown, W.A., Zayat, M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele and lorazepam effects on memory in high-functioning older adults. Pomara, N., Willoughby, L., Wesnes, K., Greenblatt, D.J., Sidtis, J.J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Declarative and procedural memory functioning in abstinent cocaine abusers. van Gorp, W.G., Wilkins, J.N., Hinkin, C.H., Moore, L.H., Hull, J., Horner, M.D., Plotkin, D. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Cortical serotonin transporter density and verbal memory in individuals who stopped using 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"): preliminary findings. Reneman, L., Lavalaye, J., Schmand, B., de Wolff, F.A., van den Brink, W., den Heeten, G.J., Booij, J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Neurologic soft signs in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Gurvits, T.V., Gilbertson, M.W., Lasko, N.B., Tarhan, A.S., Simeon, D., Macklin, M.L., Orr, S.P., Pitman, R.K. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Localization, expression and genomic structure of the gene encoding the human serine protease testisin. Hooper, J.D., Bowen, N., Marshall, H., Cullen, L.M., Sood, R., Daniels, R., Stuttgen, M.A., Normyle, J.F., Higgs, D.R., Kastner, D.L., Ogbourne, S.M., Pera, M.F., Jazwinska, E.C., Antalis, T.M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Organization and chromosomal localization of the murine Testisin gene encoding a serine protease temporally expressed during spermatogenesis. Scarman, A.L., Hooper, J.D., Boucaut, K.J., Sit, M.L., Webb, G.C., Normyle, J.F., Antalis, T.M. Eur. J. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Correction of abnormal renal blood flow response to angiotensin II by converting enzyme inhibition in essential hypertensives. Redgrave, J., Rabinowe, S., Hollenberg, N.K., Williams, G.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Schizophrenia and temporal lobe epilepsy. A neuropsychological analysis. Gold, J.M., Hermann, B.P., Randolph, C., Wyler, A.R., Goldberg, T.E., Weinberger, D.R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Neuropsychological impairments in deficit vs nondeficit forms of schizophrenia. Buchanan, R.W., Strauss, M.E., Kirkpatrick, B., Holstein, C., Breier, A., Carpenter, W.T. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Oxidative properties of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-stimulated human blood monomorphonuclear leukocytes and their toxicity against a human lung carcinoma cell line. Gescher, A., Brodie, A.E., Reed, D.J. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Morphology of the planum temporale and corpus callosum in left handers with evidence of left and right hemisphere speech representation. Moffat, S.D., Hampson, E., Lee, D.H. Brain (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Dissociation of neural systems mediating shifts in behavioral response and cognitive set. Shafritz, K.M., Kartheiser, P., Belger, A. Neuroimage (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Insulin. Its role in the thermic effect of glucose. Christin, L., Nacht, C.A., Vernet, O., Ravussin, E., Jéquier, E., Acheson, K.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Depression among alcoholics. Relationship to clinical and cerebrospinal fluid variables. Roy, A., DeJong, J., Lamparski, D., George, T., Linnoila, M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Neurocognitive impairments in nonpsychotic parents of children with schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the University of California, Los Angeles Family Study. Asarnow, R.F., Nuechterlein, K.H., Subotnik, K.L., Fogelson, D.L., Torquato, R.D., Payne, D.L., Asamen, J., Mintz, J., Guthrie, D. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Neuropsychological prediction of conversion to Alzheimer disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Tabert, M.H., Manly, J.J., Liu, X., Pelton, G.H., Rosenblum, S., Jacobs, M., Zamora, D., Goodkind, M., Bell, K., Stern, Y., Devanand, D.P. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Variation in the eNOS gene modifies the association between total energy expenditure and glucose intolerance. Franks, P.W., Luan, J., Barroso, I., Brage, S., Gonzalez Sanchez, J.L., Ekelund, U., Ríos, M.S., Schafer, A.J., O'Rahilly, S., Wareham, N.J. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Hunger-satiety signals in patients with Graves' thyrotoxicosis before, during, and after long-term pharmacological treatment. Röjdmark, S., Calissendorff, J., Danielsson, O., Brismar, K. Endocrine (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Diagnosis of growth hormone (GH) deficiency in adults with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders: comparison of test results using pyridostigmine plus GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), clonidine plus GHRH, and insulin-induced hypoglycemia as GH secretagogues. Hoeck, H.C., Vestergaard, P., Jakobsen, P.E., Falhof, J., Laurberg, P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Oral creatine supplementation decreases plasma markers of adenine nucleotide degradation during a 1-h cycle test. Bellinger, B.M., Bold, A., Wilson, G.R., Noakes, T.D., Myburgh, K.H. Acta Physiol. Scand. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Reproducibility of growth hormone and cortisol responses to the insulin tolerance test and the short ACTH test in normal adults. Vestergaard, P., Hoeck, H.C., Jakobsen, P.E., Laurberg, P. Horm. Metab. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Controlled trial of faecal occult blood testing in the detection of colorectal cancer. Hardcastle, J.D., Farrands, P.A., Balfour, T.W., Chamberlain, J., Amar, S.S., Sheldon, M.G. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  39. Helicobacter pylori "test and treat" or endoscopy for managing dyspepsia: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Ford, A.C., Qume, M., Moayyedi, P., Arents, N.L., Lassen, A.T., Logan, R.F., McColl, K.E., Myres, P., Delaney, B.C. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Altered modulation of prefrontal and subcortical brain activity in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder. A regional cerebral blood flow study. Rubin, P., Holm, S., Friberg, L., Videbech, P., Andersen, H.S., Bendsen, B.B., Strømsø, N., Larsen, J.K., Lassen, N.A., Hemmingsen, R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1991) [Pubmed]
  41. Psychiatric problems in homeless men. Lifetime psychosis, substance use, and current distress in new arrivals at New York City shelters. Susser, E., Struening, E.L., Conover, S. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  42. Left ventricular, peripheral vascular, and neurohumoral responses to mental stress in normal middle-aged men and women. Reference Group for the Psychophysiological Investigations of Myocardial Ischemia (PIMI) Study. Becker, L.C., Pepine, C.J., Bonsall, R., Cohen, J.D., Goldberg, A.D., Coghlan, C., Stone, P.H., Forman, S., Knatterud, G., Sheps, D.S., Kaufmann, P.G. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
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