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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Hypoxia regulation of expression and angiogenic effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and VIP receptors in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a main factor promoting neovascularization (angiogenesis) of solid tumours as prostate carcinoma. Hypoxia stimulates VEGF gene expression by activating the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1alpha). In the present study, the hypoxia-mimicking agent Ni(2+) induced vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expression at both mRNA and peptide levels but it did not modify the expression of VIP receptors (VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1) receptors) in androgen-dependent human LNCaP prostate cancer cells. VIP increased the mRNA levels of VPAC(1) and PAC(1) receptors whereas it decreased VPAC(2) receptor mRNA level. These features support that hypoxia up-regulation of VIP gene expression in prostatic carcinoma may lead to VIP regulation of the expression of its receptors by means of autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. Either VIP or hypoxia mimetics with Ni(2+) increased VEGF expression whereas both conditions together resulted in an additive response. It suggests two independent mechanisms for the observed pro-angiogenic activities of VIP and hypoxia. VIP did not stimulate HIF-1alpha mRNA expression but increased the translocation of HIF-1alpha from the cytosolic compartment to the cell nucleus. Moreover, VIP was unable to modify the expression of the HIF-1alpha inhibitor FIH-1 discarding the possibility of an indirect effect of VIP on HIF-1 transactivation.[1]


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