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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Cell Nucleus

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Disease relevance of Cell Nucleus


High impact information on Cell Nucleus

  • The tumor suppressor and transcriptional regulator p53 is perhaps one of the most regulated proteins in the cell nucleus and is acted upon by a variety of protein kinases, acetylases, ubiqutin ligases and hydrolases, and SUMO-conjugating enzymes [6].
  • Ash1p, which only accumulates in daughter cell nuclei, binds to HO soon after Swi5p and aborts recruitment of Swi/Snf, SAGA, and SBF [7].
  • Thus, Hmg1 is not essential for the overall organization of chromatin in the cell nucleus, but is critical for proper transcriptional control by specific transcription factors [8].
  • The ISWI protein is localized to the cell nucleus and is expressed throughout Drosophila development at levels as high as 100,000 molecules/cell [9].
  • All 603 men received leuprolide, an analogue of gonadotropin-releasing hormone that inhibits the release of gonadotropins, in combination with either placebo or flutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen that inhibits the binding of androgens to the cell nucleus [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cell Nucleus


Biological context of Cell Nucleus


Anatomical context of Cell Nucleus


Associations of Cell Nucleus with chemical compounds


Gene context of Cell Nucleus

  • Whereas induction of p53 involves events in the cell nucleus, the activation of transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappaB by ultraviolet radiation is mediated through membrane-associated signalling proteins, ruling out a nuclear signal [31].
  • This asymmetry is due to the preferential accumulation of an unstable transcriptional repressor protein, Ash1p, in daughter cell nuclei [32].
  • Here we show that Cdc24, the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for the yeast GTPase Cdc42, is sequestered in the cell nucleus by Far1 [33].
  • This effect requires tyrosine kinase activity and the Abl C-terminus. c-Abl is localized to the cell nucleus, where it can bind DNA, and interacts with the retinoblastoma protein, a potential mediator of the growth-inhibitory effect [34].
  • Both Mob2p and Cbk1p localize interdependently to the bud cortex during polarized growth and to the bud neck and daughter cell nucleus during late mitosis [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cell Nucleus

  • METHODS: Levels of p27 in tumor cell nuclei were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections from the primary tumors of 96 patients with stage C prostate carcinoma who had been treated by radical prostatectomy [36].
  • Immunohistochemical detection of abnormal p53 protein in pretreatment specimens (i.e., needle biopsies or transurethral resections) was achieved by use of the monoclonal anti-p53 antibody DO7; specimens in which 20% or more of the tumor cell nuclei showed positive immunoreactivity were considered to have abnormal p53 protein expression [37].
  • After selection with the neomycin analogue G418, at least two of the resistant clones were shown to have intact delta antigen by specific immunoblotting, and the delta antigen was located in the cell nucleus by immunofluorescence [38].
  • After transfection of these constructs into HeLa S3 cells, which do not normally synthesize hGH, the use of indirect immunofluorescence staining to follow the localization of the hGH chimeras demonstrated that both prothymosin and parathymosin caused targeting to the cell nucleus [39].
  • Here we report on the selective uptake of homogeneous fluorescein-labeled nido-carboranyl oligomeric phosphate diesters (nido-OPDs) by the cell nucleus and their long-term retention after their delivery into the cytoplasm of TC7 cells by microinjection [40].


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  3. Accurate initiation of human epsilon-globin RNA synthesis by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase in isolated nuclei of K562 erythroleukemia cells. Gilmour, R.S., Allan, M., Paul, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
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  7. Ordered recruitment of transcription and chromatin remodeling factors to a cell cycle- and developmentally regulated promoter. Cosma, M.P., Tanaka, T., Nasmyth, K. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. The lack of chromosomal protein Hmg1 does not disrupt cell growth but causes lethal hypoglycaemia in newborn mice. Calogero, S., Grassi, F., Aguzzi, A., Voigtländer, T., Ferrier, P., Ferrari, S., Bianchi, M.E. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. ISWI, a member of the SWI2/SNF2 ATPase family, encodes the 140 kDa subunit of the nucleosome remodeling factor. Tsukiyama, T., Daniel, C., Tamkun, J., Wu, C. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. A controlled trial of leuprolide with and without flutamide in prostatic carcinoma. Crawford, E.D., Eisenberger, M.A., McLeod, D.G., Spaulding, J.T., Benson, R., Dorr, F.A., Blumenstein, B.A., Davis, M.A., Goodman, P.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
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  13. Depletion of a discrete nuclear glutathione pool by oxidative stress, but not by buthionine sulfoximine. Correlation with enhanced alkylating agent cytotoxicity to human melanoma cells in vitro. Jevtović-Todorović, V., Guenthner, T.M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Gene C2 of the monopartite geminivirus tomato yellow leaf curl virus-China encodes a pathogenicity determinant that is localized in the nucleus. van Wezel, R., Liu, H., Tien, P., Stanley, J., Hong, Y. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Action of Escherichia coli and human 5'----3' exonuclease functions at incised apurinic/apyrimidinic sites in DNA. Price, A. FEBS Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Nuclear protein with sequence homology to translation initiation factor eIF-4A. Ford, M.J., Anton, I.A., Lane, D.P. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Interferon-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor. Schindler, C., Shuai, K., Prezioso, V.R., Darnell, J.E. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Regulation of pro-opiomelanocortin gene transcription in individual cell nuclei. Fremeau, R.T., Lundblad, J.R., Pritchett, D.B., Wilcox, J.N., Roberts, J.L. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. NuMA, a nuclear protein involved in mitosis and nuclear reformation. Compton, D.A., Cleveland, D.W. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. ORC localization in Drosophila follicle cells and the effects of mutations in dE2F and dDP. Royzman, I., Austin, R.J., Bosco, G., Bell, S.P., Orr-Weaver, T.L. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. The Drosophila pourquoi-pas?/wings-down zinc finger protein: oocyte nucleus localization and embryonic requirement. Ségalat, L., Perichon, R., Bouly, J.P., Lepesant, J.A. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Morphology of interleukin-2-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear effector cells killing glioma-derived tumor cells in vitro. Hook, G.R., Greenwood, M.A., Barba, D., Ikejiri, B., Chen, S.N., Oldfield, E.H., Weber, R.J., Muul, L.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Compositional changes of AP-1 DNA-binding proteins are regulated by light in a mammalian circadian clock. Takeuchi, J., Shannon, W., Aronin, N., Schwartz, W.J. Neuron (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Three-dimensional reconstruction of painted human interphase chromosomes: active and inactive X chromosome territories have similar volumes but differ in shape and surface structure. Eils, R., Dietzel, S., Bertin, E., Schröck, E., Speicher, M.R., Ried, T., Robert-Nicoud, M., Cremer, C., Cremer, T. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Human deoxycytidine kinase is located in the cell nucleus. Johansson, M., Brismar, S., Karlsson, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Absence of oestradiol concentration in cell nuclei of LHRH-immunoreactive neurones. Shivers, B.D., Harlan, R.E., Morrell, J.I., Pfaff, D.W. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Steroid-free glucocorticoid receptor binds specifically to mouse mammary tumour virus DNA. Willmann, T., Beato, M. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Auxin promotes Arabidopsis root growth by modulating gibberellin response. Fu, X., Harberd, N.P. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Evidence of estrogen receptors in normal human osteoblast-like cells. Eriksen, E.F., Colvard, D.S., Berg, N.J., Graham, M.L., Mann, K.G., Spelsberg, T.C., Riggs, B.L. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Dm-myb mutant lethality in Drosophila is dependent upon mip130: positive and negative regulation of DNA replication. Beall, E.L., Bell, M., Georlette, D., Botchan, M.R. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Three distinct signalling responses by murine fibroblasts to genotoxic stress. Liu, Z.G., Baskaran, R., Lea-Chou, E.T., Wood, L.D., Chen, Y., Karin, M., Wang, J.Y. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Mating type switching in yeast controlled by asymmetric localization of ASH1 mRNA. Long, R.M., Singer, R.H., Meng, X., Gonzalez, I., Nasmyth, K., Jansen, R.P. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Nuclear sequestration of the exchange factor Cdc24 by Far1 regulates cell polarity during yeast mating. Shimada, Y., Gulli, M.P., Peter, M. Nat. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. The cytostatic function of c-Abl is controlled by multiple nuclear localization signals and requires the p53 and Rb tumor suppressor gene products. Wen, S.T., Jackson, P.K., Van Etten, R.A. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mob2p-Cbk1p kinase complex promotes polarized growth and acts with the mitotic exit network to facilitate daughter cell-specific localization of Ace2p transcription factor. Weiss, E.L., Kurischko, C., Zhang, C., Shokat, K., Drubin, D.G., Luca, F.C. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Association of p27Kip1 levels with recurrence and survival in patients with stage C prostate carcinoma. Cote, R.J., Shi, Y., Groshen, S., Feng, A.C., Cordon-Cardo, C., Skinner, D., Lieskovosky, G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. p53 status and prognosis of locally advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma: a study based on RTOG 8610. Grignon, D.J., Caplan, R., Sarkar, F.H., Lawton, C.A., Hammond, E.H., Pilepich, M.V., Forman, J.D., Mesic, J., Fu, K.K., Abrams, R.A., Pajak, T.F., Shipley, W.U., Cox, J.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Continuous expression and replication of the hepatitis delta virus genome in Hep G2 hepatoblastoma cells transfected with cloned viral DNA. Chen, P.J., Kuo, M.Y., Chen, M.L., Tu, S.J., Chiu, M.N., Wu, H.L., Hsu, H.C., Chen, D.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  39. Evidence for nuclear targeting of prothymosin and parathymosin synthesized in situ. Clinton, M., Graeve, L., el-Dorry, H., Rodriguez-Boulan, E., Horecker, B.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  40. Toward a cancer therapy with boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters that target the cell nucleus. Nakanishi, A., Guan, L., Kane, R.R., Kasamatsu, H., Hawthorne, M.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
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