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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 is released by the noninjured liver in a rat acute-phase model.

The source of serum cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1) and consequences of its presence in the tissue of synthesis have not been clearly elucidated under acute-phase situation. To pursue this question, turpentine oil (TO) was intramuscularly injected into rats, and RNA and local protein levels of acute-phase cytokines and of CINC-1 were studied in the TO injected gluteal muscle, as well as in noninjured muscle, in the liver, kidney, lung and spleen. The serum levels of acute-phase mediators and of CINC-1 were measured together with total leukocyte subpopulations. Recruitment of inflammatory cells in muscle and in the other organs was investigated by quantitative immunohistochemical methods. The effect of acute-phase mediators, including interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) on the synthesis of CINC-1 in cultured hepatocytes was also investigated at the RNA and protein level. We found that the sera of the TO-treated rats contained elevated levels of IL-6, IL-1beta and CINC-1. Increased serum levels of IFN-gamma were also observed not only in the injured muscle but also and to a higher extent in the liver. However, while neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes were found in the injured muscle, no inflammatory cells were detected at the non-'inflamed' site, namely, the liver or in the other organs. In vitro, treatment of cultured hepatocytes with IL-1beta led to elevated CINC-1 gene expression. This was true to a lesser extent upon IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) exposure. Interestingly, IFN-gamma did not effect CINC-1 gene expression. These results indicate that CINC-1 behaves as an acute-phase protein and its expression is inducible in hepatocytes. However, CINC-1-production in the liver does not lead to recruitment of inflammatory cells into the organ.[1]


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