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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Enhancing efficacy of HIV gag DNA vaccine by local delivery of GM-CSF in murine and macaque models.

Controlled release of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) protein by albumin-heparin microparticles administered via intramuscular vaccination in conjunction with HIV DNA vaccines stimulated HIV Gag-specific immune responses. In the murine model, Gag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and T helper (Th) responses were significantly enhanced by administration of murine GM-CSF microparticles. This effect was comparable to a GM-CSF encoded plasmid. In three of four rhesus monkeys, enhancement of Gag-specific antibody (Ab), Th, and CTL responses was observed 1 month after the first immunization with coadministration of human GM-CSF microparticles and HIV Gag plasmid. The second, third, and fourth booster immunizations, however, did not increase the Gag-specific immune responses. Subsequent application of Gag protein in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) significantly enhanced Ab and Th, but not CTL. However, Gag-specific CTL response was triggered by cytokine and Gag p55-encapsulated microparticles in all animals. The strategy of priming immune responses by coadministration of cytokine microparticles and DNA vaccines, followed by boosting with cytokine and antigen protein-encapsulated microparticles, may prove effective in improving an HIV DNA vaccine design.[1]


  1. Enhancing efficacy of HIV gag DNA vaccine by local delivery of GM-CSF in murine and macaque models. Song, R., Liu, S., Adams, R.J., Leong, K.W. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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