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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Immunization, Secondary

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Disease relevance of Immunization, Secondary


High impact information on Immunization, Secondary


Chemical compound and disease context of Immunization, Secondary


Biological context of Immunization, Secondary


Anatomical context of Immunization, Secondary

  • A booster immunization also resulted in increased frequencies of IFN-gamma-secreting cells, but this increase was confined to the duodenal mucosa [18].
  • These mice showed not only a long-lasting high-titer IgM response but also a consistent high-titer IgG response (predominantly IgG1), indicating recruitment of T-cell help, although the titers of IgM and IgG antibodies following booster immunizations were not as high as they are in the response to classical T-cell-dependent antigens [19].
  • The vaginal B cell response could further be enhanced by using the Th2-type cytokines IL-4 or IL-5 as genetic adjuvants concomitantly with the DNA vaccine before intranasal booster immunization with the recombinant vaccine [20].
  • Both primary and secondary immunization with bacterial lipopolysaccharide resulted in elevation of splenic Facb-R+ lymphocytes [21].

Associations of Immunization, Secondary with chemical compounds


Gene context of Immunization, Secondary


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Immunization, Secondary

  • Protection index values for challenge with either heat-labile or heat-stable toxins in ligated ileal loops were 3.4 to 4.0 in rats immunized by a parenteral primary immunization followed by two peroral booster immunizations, greater than 9 in rabbits immunized by these routes, and greater than 8 in rabbits given just three peroral immunizations [32].
  • In the first strategy, mice were primed with two biolistic intradermal inoculations with the oprF vaccine and then were given a final intramuscular booster immunization containing either a synthetic peptide-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) conjugate or a chimeric influenza virus [33].
  • Following booster immunization, mice were treated with the oral administration of 276 mg/kg/d AIF once a day for 18 days, then, the severity of CIA was evaluated by macroscopic scoring and histopathological assessment [34].


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  12. Lymphocytic 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity increases prior to the appearance of neutralizing antibodies and immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies after primary and secondary immunization with yellow fever vaccine. Bonnevie-Nielsen, V., Heron, I., Monath, T.P., Calisher, C.H. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Human and murine antibody recognition is focused on the ATPase/helicase, but not the protease domain of the hepatitis C virus nonstructural 3 protein. Chen, M., Sällberg, M., Sönnerborg, A., Jin, L., Birkett, A., Peterson, D., Weiland, O., Milich, D.R. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
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  18. Intestinal immune responses in humans. Oral cholera vaccination induces strong intestinal antibody responses and interferon-gamma production and evokes local immunological memory. Quiding, M., Nordström, I., Kilander, A., Andersson, G., Hanson, L.A., Holmgren, J., Czerkinsky, C. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. GD3 vaccines for melanoma: superior immunogenicity of keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccines. Helling, F., Shang, A., Calves, M., Zhang, S., Ren, S., Yu, R.K., Oettgen, H.F., Livingston, P.O. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Induction of genital immunity by DNA priming and intranasal booster immunization with a replication-defective adenoviral recombinant. Xiang, Z.Q., Pasquini, S., Ertl, H.C. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Facb rosette-forming cells in mice: studies on their functional significance. Eales, L.J., Hall, N.D., Hunneyball, I.M. Immunology (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Vaccines containing purified GM2 ganglioside elicit GM2 antibodies in melanoma patients. Livingston, P.O., Natoli, E.J., Calves, M.J., Stockert, E., Oettgen, H.F., Old, L.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Immunological memory to tetanus toxoid is established and maintained in the vitamin A-depleted rat. Kinoshita, M., Pasatiempo, A.M., Taylor, C.E., Ross, A.C. FASEB J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Plaque-forming cell response in BALB/c mice to two preparations of LPS extracted from Salmonella enteritidis. Hepper, K.P., Garman, R.D., Lyons, M.F., Teresa, G.W. J. Immunol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Immunogenic properties of liposomal model membranes in mice. Yasuda, T., Dancey, G.F., Kinsky, S.C. J. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. IX. Three pathogen-associated molecular patterns act synergistically to allow germfree piglets to respond to type 2 thymus-independent and thymus-dependent antigens. Butler, J.E., Francis, D.H., Freeling, J., Weber, P., Krieg, A.M. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. B7 requirements for primary and secondary protein- and polysaccharide-specific Ig isotype responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Wu, Z.Q., Khan, A.Q., Shen, Y., Schartman, J., Peach, R., Lees, A., Mond, J.J., Gause, W.C., Snapper, C.M. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Endogenous pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines differentially regulate an in vivo humoral response to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Khan, A.Q., Shen, Y., Wu, Z.Q., Wynn, T.A., Snapper, C.M. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Absence of functional inducible NO synthase enhances the efficacy of tolerance induced by high dose antigen feeding. Kahn, D.A., Archer, D.C., Kelly, C.J. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. 4-1BB (CD137) differentially regulates murine in vivo protein- and polysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin isotype responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Wu, Z.Q., Khan, A.Q., Shen, Y., Wolcott, K.M., Dawicki, W., Watts, T.H., Mittler, R.S., Snapper, C.M. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Suppression of collagen-induced arthritis by oral or nasal administration of type II collagen. Garcia, G., Komagata, Y., Slavin, A.J., Maron, R., Weiner, H.L. J. Autoimmun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Protection in rabbits immunized with a vaccine of Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin cross-linked to the heat-labile toxin B subunit. Klipstein, F.A., Engert, R.F., Houghten, R.A. Infect. Immun. (1983) [Pubmed]
  33. Enhancement of the protective efficacy of an oprF DNA vaccine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Price, B.M., Barten Legutki, J., Galloway, D.R., von Specht, B.U., Gilleland, L.B., Gilleland, H.E., Staczek, J. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Suppressive effect of AIF, a water extract from three herbs, on collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Chang, S.H., Sung, H.C., Choi, Y., Ko, S.Y., Lee, B.E., Baek, D.H., Kim, S.W., Kim, J.K. Int. Immunopharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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