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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Macaca

  • Effect of recombinant soluble CD4 in rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques [1].
  • Neutralizing antibody directed against the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein can completely block HIV-1/SIV chimeric virus infections of macaque monkeys [2].
  • Whereas all five control monkeys displayed high plasma viremia and rapid CD4 cell decline, 14 antibody-treated macaques were either completely protected against infection or against pathogenic manifestations of SHIV-infection [3].
  • Monoclonal antibodies directed to p24, the major core protein of HTLV-III, also immunoprecipitated a 24-kilodalton species in lysates of cells infected with the macaque virus [4].
  • The observation that passively transferred antibodies can suppress or delay viral infection in rotavirus-challenged pigtailed macaques has important implications for the design and testing of parenteral candidate rotavirus vaccines [5].

Psychiatry related information on Macaca


High impact information on Macaca

  • In a survey of normal tissues, we found specific immunostaining for PDGF B-chain in neurons, principal dendrites, some axons, and probable terminals throughout the brain, in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, and in the posterior pituitary of a nonhuman primate (Macaca nemestrina) [11].
  • Myopia develops in macaque monkeys when their lids are surgically fused at birth and kept closed for one year [12].
  • We show that oral delivery of CMPD167, a small molecule that binds to the CCR5 coreceptor, for 10-14 d can protect a substantial proportion of macaques from vaginal infection with a CCR5-using virus (SHIV-162P3) [13].
  • We also show that prophylactic treatment of SCV-infected macaques with the antiviral agent pegylated interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) significantly reduces viral replication and excretion, viral antigen expression by type 1 pneumocytes and pulmonary damage, compared with untreated macaques [14].
  • Neurogenesis normally only occurs in limited areas of the adult mammalian brain--the hippocampus, olfactory bulb and epithelium, and at low levels in some regions of macaque cortex [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Macaca


Biological context of Macaca

  • Previously we demonstrated in macaques that induction of FasL expression and apoptotic cell death of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells by SIV is dependent on a functional nef gene [21].
  • A level of hFIX that was 3% of normal levels was transiently detected in one other macaque, which had a genome copy number of 25 before abrogation by a neutralizing antibody (inhibitor) to hFIX [22].
  • Thus, the rapid evolution of hIL-3 has resulted in a unidirectional species specificity, which most likely restricts the in vivo effects of hIL-3 in Macaca species [23].
  • Effects of early-onset artificial strabismus on pursuit eye movements and on neuronal responses in area MT of macaque monkeys [24].
  • Amino acid sequence of a proline-rich phosphoglycoprotein from parotid secretion of the subhuman primate Macaca fascicularis [25].

Anatomical context of Macaca


Associations of Macaca with chemical compounds


Gene context of Macaca

  • The profiles were significantly different during primary SIV infection in macaques (SIVmac); that is, there was a delayed increase in IL-10 levels accompanied by moderate and persistent increases in TGF-beta levels [35].
  • The Env from the parental virus as well as one derived from the first macaque to develop AIDS exclusively used CXCR4 as a coreceptor, indicating that CXCR4 can function as a coreceptor in macaques even though it is rarely used by simian immunodeficiency viruses [36].
  • The chemokine receptors CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4 are found on subpopulations of neurons in the cortex of human and macaque brain [37].
  • Accordingly, we cloned the macaque eotaxin and CCR3 genes and revealed that they were 91 and 92% identical at the amino acid level to their human homologues, respectively [38].
  • In the work reported here, the responses of cultured microvascular EC derived from macaque lymph nodes to IL-1beta, IL-2, IFN-gamma, and IL-4 were examined [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Macaca

  • We developed a macaque animal model for Bartonella quintana infection to detect changes in bacterial outer-membrane proteins (OMP) during prolonged bloodstream infection [40].
  • Vaccination with tat toxoid attenuates disease in simian/HIV-challenged macaques [41].
  • Microarray analysis showed that H. pylori recovered from challenged macaques had deleted babA, a member of a large family of paralogous outer membrane proteins (OMPs) that mediates attachment of H. pylori to the Lewis B blood group antigen on gastric epithelium [42].
  • Two isoforms (alpha 1 and alpha 3) predominated in the macaque heart; dissection of the heart showed uniformity of isoform expression in different ventricular regions but markedly less alpha 3 in the atrium [43].
  • Protection of multiple hematopoietic lineages with the SIV-specific ribozyme should permit analysis of stem cell gene therapy for AIDS in the SIV/macaque model [44].


  1. Effect of recombinant soluble CD4 in rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques. Watanabe, M., Reimann, K.A., DeLong, P.A., Liu, T., Fisher, R.A., Letvin, N.L. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Neutralizing antibody directed against the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein can completely block HIV-1/SIV chimeric virus infections of macaque monkeys. Shibata, R., Igarashi, T., Haigwood, N., Buckler-White, A., Ogert, R., Ross, W., Willey, R., Cho, M.W., Martin, M.A. Nat. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Protection of macaques against vaginal transmission of a pathogenic HIV-1/SIV chimeric virus by passive infusion of neutralizing antibodies. Mascola, J.R., Stiegler, G., VanCott, T.C., Katinger, H., Carpenter, C.B., Hanson, C.E., Beary, H., Hayes, D., Frankel, S.S., Birx, D.L., Lewis, M.G. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Serologic identification and characterization of a macaque T-lymphotropic retrovirus closely related to HTLV-III. Kanki, P.J., McLane, M.F., King, N.W., Letvin, N.L., Hunt, R.D., Sehgal, P., Daniel, M.D., Desrosiers, R.C., Essex, M. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Serum IgG mediates mucosal immunity against rotavirus infection. Westerman, L.E., McClure, H.M., Jiang, B., Almond, J.W., Glass, R.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Simian immunodeficiency virus-induced meningoencephalitis: natural history and retrospective study. Ringler, D.J., Hunt, R.D., Desrosiers, R.C., Daniel, M.D., Chalifoux, L.V., King, N.W. Ann. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Increased viral replication in simian immunodeficiency virus/simian-HIV-infected macaques with self-administering model of chronic alcohol consumption. Kumar, R., Perez-Casanova, A.E., Tirado, G., Noel, R.J., Torres, C., Rodriguez, I., Martinez, M., Staprans, S., Kraiselburd, E., Yamamura, Y., Higley, J.D., Kumar, A. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Monkey motor stimulation and altered social behavior during chronic methadone administration. Crowley, T.J., Hydinger, M., Stynes, A.J., Feiger, A. Psychopharmacologia. (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Virus replication and disease progression inversely correlate with SIV tat evolution in morphine-dependent and SIV/SHIV-infected Indian rhesus macaques. Noel, R.J., Kumar, A. Virology (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Methylmercury effects on the social behavior of Macaca fascicularis infants. Burbacher, T.M., Sackett, G.P., Mottet, N.K. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. PDGF B-chain in neurons of the central nervous system, posterior pituitary, and in a transgenic model. Sasahara, M., Fries, J.W., Raines, E.W., Gown, A.M., Westrum, L.E., Frosch, M.P., Bonthron, D.T., Ross, R., Collins, T. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. An animal model of myopia. Raviola, E., Wiesel, T.N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Protection of macaques from vaginal SHIV challenge by an orally delivered CCR5 inhibitor. Veazey, R.S., Springer, M.S., Marx, P.A., Dufour, J., Klasse, P.J., Moore, J.P. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Pegylated interferon-alpha protects type 1 pneumocytes against SARS coronavirus infection in macaques. Haagmans, B.L., Kuiken, T., Martina, B.E., Fouchier, R.A., Rimmelzwaan, G.F., van Amerongen, G., van Riel, D., de Jong, T., Itamura, S., Chan, K.H., Tashiro, M., Osterhaus, A.D. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Induction of neurogenesis in the neocortex of adult mice. Magavi, S.S., Leavitt, B.R., Macklis, J.D. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Transfer of the HIV-1 cyclophilin-binding site to simian immunodeficiency virus from Macaca mulatta can confer both cyclosporin sensitivity and cyclosporin dependence. Bukovsky, A.A., Weimann, A., Accola, M.A., Göttlinger, H.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. The infiltration kinetics of simian immunodeficiency virus-specific T cells drawn to sites of high antigenic stimulation determines local in vivo viral escape. Blancou, P., Chenciner, N., Cumont, M.C., Wain-Hobson, S., Hurtrel, B., Cheynier, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Autoimmune anemia in macaques following erythropoietin gene therapy. Chenuaud, P., Larcher, T., Rabinowitz, J.E., Provost, N., Cherel, Y., Casadevall, N., Samulski, R.J., Moullier, P. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Increased ratio of quinolinic acid to kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid of D retrovirus-infected rhesus macaques: relationship to clinical and viral status. Heyes, M.P., Mefford, I.N., Quearry, B.J., Dedhia, M., Lackner, A. Ann. Neurol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Poliovirus induces indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase and quinolinic acid synthesis in macaque brain. Heyes, M.P., Saito, K., Jacobowitz, D., Markey, S.P., Takikawa, O., Vickers, J.H. FASEB J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Induction of Fas ligand expression by HIV involves the interaction of Nef with the T cell receptor zeta chain. Xu, X.N., Laffert, B., Screaton, G.R., Kraft, M., Wolf, D., Kolanus, W., Mongkolsapay, J., McMichael, A.J., Baur, A.S. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Sustained high-level expression of human factor IX (hFIX) after liver-targeted delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the hFIX gene in rhesus macaques. Nathwani, A.C., Davidoff, A.M., Hanawa, H., Hu, Y., Hoffer, F.A., Nikanorov, A., Slaughter, C., Ng, C.Y., Zhou, J., Lozier, J.N., Mandrell, T.D., Vanin, E.F., Nienhuis, A.W. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Species specificity of human interleukin-3 demonstrated by cloning and expression of the homologous rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) gene. Burger, H., van Leen, R.W., Dorssers, L.C., Persoon, N.L., Lemson, P.J., Wagemaker, G. Blood (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of early-onset artificial strabismus on pursuit eye movements and on neuronal responses in area MT of macaque monkeys. Kiorpes, L., Walton, P.J., O'Keefe, L.P., Movshon, J.A., Lisberger, S.G. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Amino acid sequence of a proline-rich phosphoglycoprotein from parotid secretion of the subhuman primate Macaca fascicularis. Oppenheim, F.G., Offner, G.D., Troxler, R.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Early suppression of SIV replication by CD8+ nef-specific cytotoxic T cells in vaccinated macaques. Gallimore, A., Cranage, M., Cook, N., Almond, N., Bootman, J., Rud, E., Silvera, P., Dennis, M., Corcoran, T., Stott, J. Nat. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Orientation columns in macaque monkey visual cortex demonstrated by the 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique. Hubel, D.H., Wiesel, T.N., Stryker, M.P. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  28. Immunocytochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase in monkey striate cortex. Hendrickson, A.E., Hunt, S.P., Wu, J.Y. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Sertoli-Leydig cell communication via an LHRH-like factor. Sharpe, R.M., Fraser, H.M., Cooper, I., Rommerts, F.F. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Evidence for cholinergic neurites in senile plaques. Kitt, C.A., Price, D.L., Struble, R.G., Cork, L.C., Wainer, B.H., Becher, M.W., Mobley, W.C. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of constant light on nychthemeral variations in serum testosterone in male Macaca radiata. Mukku, V., Prahalada, S., Moudgal, N.R. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  32. Progesterone implants enhance SIV vaginal transmission and early virus load. Marx, P.A., Spira, A.I., Gettie, A., Dailey, P.J., Veazey, R.S., Lackner, A.A., Mahoney, C.J., Miller, C.J., Claypool, L.E., Ho, D.D., Alexander, N.J. Nat. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. The thymus-adrenal connection: thymosin has corticotropin-releasing activity in primates. Healy, D.L., Hodgen, G.D., Schulte, H.M., Chrousos, G.P., Loriaux, D.L., Hall, N.R., Goldstein, A.L. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Prevention of SIV infection in macaques by (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine. Tsai, C.C., Follis, K.E., Sabo, A., Beck, T.W., Grant, R.F., Bischofberger, N., Benveniste, R.E., Black, R. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Antiinflammatory profiles during primary SIV infection in African green monkeys are associated with protection against AIDS. Kornfeld, C., Ploquin, M.J., Pandrea, I., Faye, A., Onanga, R., Apetrei, C., Poaty-Mavoungou, V., Rouquet, P., Estaquier, J., Mortara, L., Desoutter, J.F., Butor, C., Le Grand, R., Roques, P., Simon, F., Barré-Sinoussi, F., Diop, O.M., Müller-Trutwin, M.C. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. HIV type I envelope determinants for use of the CCR2b, CCR3, STRL33, and APJ coreceptors. Hoffman, T.L., Stephens, E.B., Narayan, O., Doms, R.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Chemokine receptor expression and signaling in macaque and human fetal neurons and astrocytes: implications for the neuropathogenesis of AIDS. Klein, R.S., Williams, K.C., Alvarez-Hernandez, X., Westmoreland, S., Force, T., Lackner, A.A., Luster, A.D. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Functional expression and characterization of macaque C-C chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and generation of potent antagonistic anti-macaque CCR3 monoclonal antibodies. Zhang, L., Soares, M.P., Guan, Y., Matheravidathu, S., Wnek, R., Johnson, K.E., Meisher, A., Iliff, S.A., Mudgett, J.S., Springer, M.S., Daugherty, B.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  39. IL-4 acts synergistically with IL-1 beta to promote lymphocyte adhesion to microvascular endothelium by induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Masinovsky, B., Urdal, D., Gallatin, W.M. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  40. A family of variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomp) mediates adhesion and autoaggregation in Bartonella quintana. Zhang, P., Chomel, B.B., Schau, M.K., Goo, J.S., Droz, S., Kelminson, K.L., George, S.S., Lerche, N.W., Koehler, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  41. Vaccination with tat toxoid attenuates disease in simian/HIV-challenged macaques. Pauza, C.D., Trivedi, P., Wallace, M., Ruckwardt, T.J., Le Buanec, H., Lu, W., Bizzini, B., Burny, A., Zagury, D., Gallo, R.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  42. Modification of Helicobacter pylori outer membrane protein expression during experimental infection of rhesus macaques. Solnick, J.V., Hansen, L.M., Salama, N.R., Boonjakuakul, J.K., Syvanen, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  43. Immunologic identification of Na+,K(+)-ATPase isoforms in myocardium. Isoform change in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension. Sweadner, K.J., Herrera, V.L., Amato, S., Moellmann, A., Gibbons, D.K., Repke, K.R. Circ. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  44. Intracellular immunization of rhesus CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells with a hairpin ribozyme protects T cells and macrophages from simian immunodeficiency virus infection. Rosenzweig, M., Marks, D.F., Hempel, D., Heusch, M., Kraus, G., Wong-Staal, F., Johnson, R.P. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
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