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Gene Review

CSF2  -  colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte...

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Disease relevance of GM-CSF


Psychiatry related information on GM-CSF

  • The discordant results of this growth factor combination in these two models may imply codependence of the hematopoietic response to TPO and/or GM-CSF on other factors or cytokines [6].

High impact information on GM-CSF

  • Stimulation of haematopoiesis in primates by continuous infusion of recombinant human GM-CSF [7].
  • We find that the continuous infusion of GM-CSF in healthy monkeys rapidly elicits a dramatic leukocytosis and a substantial reticulocytosis [7].
  • We conclude that GM-CSF may be useful in accelerating bone marrow reconstitution [1].
  • After withdrawal of GM-CSF, neutrophil counts fell to values comparable to those observed in untreated controls [1].
  • In addition, topical immunization with the attenuated virus expressing GM-CSF induced a greater number of virus-specific IFN-gamma-secreting T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of monkeys than did immunization with the control virus bearing an unrelated RNA insert [2].

Biological context of GM-CSF

  • The kinetics of the carbohydrate-specific IgG response correlated with a temporary release of cytokines such as IFNgamma, IL-2, IL-1beta, TNFalpha and GM-CSF which was measurable in the immune serum by xMAP Multiplex technology [8].
  • In contrast, neither IL-3 alone nor simultaneously administered IL-3/GM-CSF elicited increases in thrombopoiesis between days 3 and 15 [9].
  • Platelet counts maximally increased to a mean of 7.5 x 10(5)/microL (n = 3) on days 11 through 12 in monkeys treated with sequential IL-3/GM-CSF [9].
  • Megakaryocyte ploidy distributions were significantly (P < .001) shifted between days 7 and 10 in monkeys treated sequentially and between days 3 and 15 in monkeys treated with combined IL-3/GM-CSF and with GM-CSF alone but not in monkeys treated with IL-3 alone [9].
  • CD34+ cells with high GM-CSF-receptor expression coexpressed high levels of the class II major histocompatibility antigen RhLA-DR, whereas CD34+/RhLA-DRlow cells, which represent developmentally earlier cells, were either GM-CSF-receptor negative or expressed GM-CSF receptors at very low levels [10].

Anatomical context of GM-CSF

  • Instead, GM-CSF stimulation resulted in terminal differentiation into adherent cells, showing that these cells represented monocyte precursors [10].
  • We conclude that administration of IL-3 followed by GM-CSF treatment increases thrombopoiesis by sequentially increasing megakaryocyte numbers and maturation and that these effects are diminished by simultaneous administration of the two cytokines [9].
  • The results show that GM-CSF-receptor expression is initiated in a subset of immature, CD34bright/RhLA-DRdull cells and is progressively increased during differentiation into mature granulocytes and monocytes [10].
  • TPO/GM-CSF was more effective than single-dose TPO alone in stimulating thrombocyte regeneration, with a less profound nadir and a further accelerated recovery to normal thrombocyte counts, as well as a slight overshoot to supranormal levels of thrombocytes [11].
  • Also, reticulocyte production was stimulated by TPO and further augmented in monkeys treated with TPO/GM-CSF [11].

Associations of GM-CSF with chemical compounds


Other interactions of GM-CSF

  • A large fraction (> 30%) of single-cell/well-sorted CD34bright/RhLA-DRdull cells formed multilineage colonies after 2 to 4 weeks of stimulation with IL-3, GM-CSF, Kit ligand, and IL-6 [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GM-CSF


  1. Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) shortens the period of neutropenia after autologous bone marrow transplantation in a primate model. Nienhuis, A.W., Donahue, R.E., Karlsson, S., Clark, S.C., Agricola, B., Antinoff, N., Pierce, J.E., Turner, P., Anderson, W.F., Nathan, D.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. More antibody with less antigen: can immunogenicity of attenuated live virus vaccines be improved? Bukreyev, A., Skiadopoulos, M.H., McAuliffe, J., Murphy, B.R., Collins, P.L., Schmidt, A.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor stimulates in vitro proliferation of astrocytes derived from simian mature brains. Guillemin, G., Boussin, F.D., Le Grand, R., Croitoru, J., Coffigny, H., Dormont, D. Glia (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Studies on GM-CSF DNA as an adjuvant for neutralizing Ab elicited by a DNA/MVA immunodeficiency virus vaccine. Robinson, H.L., Montefiori, D.C., Villinger, F., Robinson, J.E., Sharma, S., Wyatt, L.S., Earl, P.L., McClure, H.M., Moss, B., Amara, R.R. Virology (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Synergistic neutralizing antibody response to a dengue virus type 2 DNA vaccine by incorporation of lysosome-associated membrane protein sequences and use of plasmid expressing GM-CSF. Raviprakash, K., Marques, E., Ewing, D., Lu, Y., Phillips, I., Porter, K.R., Kochel, T.J., August, T.J., Hayes, C.G., Murphy, G.S. Virology (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Lack of efficacy of thrombopoietin and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor after total body irradiation and autologous bone marrow transplantation in Rhesus monkeys. Hartong, S.C., Neelis, K.J., Visser, T.P., Wagemaker, G. Exp. Hematol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Stimulation of haematopoiesis in primates by continuous infusion of recombinant human GM-CSF. Donahue, R.E., Wang, E.A., Stone, D.K., Kamen, R., Wong, G.G., Sehgal, P.K., Nathan, D.G., Clark, S.C. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Immunization of Rhesus monkeys with a SialylTn-mAb17-1A conjugate vaccine co-formulated with QS-21 induces a temporary systemic cytokine release and NK cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Kircheis, R., Siegl, P., Grunt, S., Halanek, N., Loibner, H., Mudde, G.C., Nechansky, A. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential effects of sequential, simultaneous, and single agent interleukin-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on megakaryocyte maturation and platelet response in primates. Stahl, C.P., Winton, E.F., Monroe, M.C., Haff, E., Holman, R.C., Myers, L., Liehl, E., Evatt, B.L. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Distribution of receptors for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on immature CD34+ bone marrow cells, differentiating monomyeloid progenitors, and mature blood cell subsets. Wognum, A.W., Westerman, Y., Visser, T.P., Wagemaker, G. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. The efficacy of single-dose administration of thrombopoietin with coadministration of either granulocyte/macrophage or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in myelosuppressed rhesus monkeys. Neelis, K.J., Hartong, S.C., Egeland, T., Thomas, G.R., Eaton, D.L., Wagemaker, G. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Hydroxyurea-induced HbF production in anemic primates: augmentation by erythropoietin, hematopoietic growth factors, and sodium butyrate. McDonagh, K.T., Dover, G.J., Donahue, R.E., Nathan, D.G., Agricola, B., Byrne, E., Nienhuis, A.W. Exp. Hematol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential expression of receptors for interleukin-3 on subsets of CD34-expressing hematopoietic cells of rhesus monkeys. Wognum, A.W., Visser, T.P., de Jong, M.O., Egeland, T., Wagemaker, G. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Obtention and characterization of primary astrocyte and microglial cultures from adult monkey brains. Guillemin, G., Boussin, F.D., Croitoru, J., Franck-Duchenne, M., Le Grand, R., Lazarini, F., Dormont, D. J. Neurosci. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Enhancing efficacy of HIV gag DNA vaccine by local delivery of GM-CSF in murine and macaque models. Song, R., Liu, S., Adams, R.J., Leong, K.W. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. IL-12/GM-CSF coadministration in an SIV DNA prime/protein boost protocol enhances Gag-specific T cells but not virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in rhesus macaques. O'Neill, E., Bostik, V., Montefiori, D.C., Kraiselburd, E., Villinger, F. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (2003) [Pubmed]
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