The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The gene expression and activity of calpains and the muscle wasting-associated ubiquitin ligases, atrogin-1 and MuRF1, are not altered in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

Hyperparathyroidism ( HPT) can be associated with muscle atrophy and weakness. Muscle atrophy is typically caused by increased muscle protein breakdown. The influence of HPT on calpains and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which are important regulators of muscle proteolysis, is not yet known. We examined the expression in skeletal muscle of mu- and m-calpain and the ubiquitin ligases, atrogin-1 and MuRF1, in patients with primary HPT. A biopsy was obtained from the sternohyoid muscle in patients undergoing surgery for primary HPT (n=8) and in normocalcemic control patients undergoing thyroid surgery (n=11). mRNA levels for atrogin-1, MuRF1 and the calcium-regulated proteases, mu- and m-calpain, were determined by real-time PCR. Calpain activity was measured using the calpain-specific substrate, BODIPY-FL-casein, and by zymography. Serum calcium was 11.4+/-0.46 and 9.5+/-0.10 mg/dl in HPT and control patients, respectively (p<0.01). The corresponding phosphate levels were 2.7+/-0.2 and 3.6+/-0.1 mg/dl (p<0.05). Parathyroid hormone serum concentration was 286+/-103 pg/ml (range, 77-946 pg/ml) in patients with HPT and was not measured in control patients. There were no significant differences in mRNA levels for atrogin-1, MuRF1, mu- or m-calpain and in calpain activity between HPT and control patients. The results suggest that the ubiquitin-proteasome and calpain systems are not activated in skeletal muscle in patients with primary HPT, at least not in patients with moderate hypercalcemia.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities