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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Virulence of viable but nonculturable S. Typhimurium LT2 after peracetic acid treatment.

S. Typhimurium LT2 cells suspended in sterilized sewage effluent water (SEW) and in distilled water microcosms were exposed to 0, 7, 15 and 20 mg/l peracetic acid, and tested for viability and virulence. After treatment for one hour, colony forming units decreased by at least 5 log units at peracetic acid concentration of 7 mg/l. In SEW, at peracetic acid concentration of 15 mg/l, the cells were nonculturable (VNC), but retained virulence as demonstrated by invasion assays of HeLa cells. Higher concentrations (greater than or equal to 20 mg/l) resulted in bacterial death, i.e. substrate non-responsive cells. Despite morphological alterations of the bacteria after peracetic acid treatment, visualized by transmission electronic microscopy, conservation of both adhesive and invasive capacities was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy after exposure to 0-15 mg/l peracetic acid. Public health professionals need to recognize that peracetic acid-treated Salmonella is capable of modifying its physiological characteristics, including entering and recovering from the viable but nonculturable state, and may remain virulent after a stay in SEW followed by peracetic acid treatment.[1]


  1. Virulence of viable but nonculturable S. Typhimurium LT2 after peracetic acid treatment. Jolivet-Gougeon, A., Sauvager, F., Bonnaure-Mallet, M., Colwell, R.R., Cormier, M. Int. J. Food Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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