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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Antibody responses of humans and nonhuman primates to individual antigenic sites of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion glycoproteins after primary infection or reinfection with parainfluenza type 3 virus.

An unusual feature of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) is ita ability to cause reinfection with high efficiency. The antibody responses of 45 humans and 9 rhesus monkeys to primary infection or subsequent reinfection with PIV3 were examined to identify deficiencies in host immunologic responses that might contribute to the ability of the virus to cause reinfection with high frequency. Antibody responses in serum were tested by using neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays and a monoclonal antibody blocking immunoassay able to detect antibodies to epitopes within six antigenic sites on the PIV3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein and eight antigenic sites on the fusion (F) protein. Primary infection of seronegative infants or children with PIV3 stimulated strong and rather uniform HI and neutralizing antibody responses. More than 90% of the individuals developed antibodies to four of the six HN antigenic sites (including three of the four neutralization sites), but the responses to F antigenic sites were of lesser magnitude and varied considerably from person to person. Young infants who possessed maternally derived antibodies in their sera developed lower levels and less frequent HI, neutralizing, and antigenic site-specific responses to the HN and F glycoproteins than did seronegative infants and children. In contrast, children reinfected with PIV3 developed even higher HI and neutralizing antibody responses than those observed during primary infection. Reinfection broadened the HN and F antigenic site-specific responses, but the latter remained relatively restricted. Adults possessed lower levels of HI, neutralizing, and antigenic site-specific antibodies in their sera than did children who had been reinfected, suggesting that these antibodies decay with time. Rhesus monkeys developed more vigorous primary and secondary antibody responses than did humans, but even in these highly responsive animals, response to the F glycoprotein was relatively restricted following primary infection. Bovine PIV3 induced a broader response to human PIV3 in monkeys than was anticipated on the basis of their known relatedness as defined by using monoclonal antibodies to human PIV3. These observations suggest that the restricted antibody responses to multiple antigenic sites on the F glycoprotein in young seronegative infants and children and the decreased responses to both the F and HN glycoproteins in young infants and children with maternally derived antibodies may play a role in the susceptibility of human infants and young children to reinfection with PIV3.[1]


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