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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Primates


Psychiatry related information on Primates

  • Differential expression of amyloid precursor protein mRNAs in cases of Alzheimer's disease and in aged nonhuman primates [6].
  • This expression of cortical NGF receptors was compared with that seen in other neurological diseases and normal human development as well as in young and aged nonhuman primates [7].
  • Thus in primates, the SCN could assure sleep-wake cycle consolidation by actively promoting or facilitating wakefulness [8].
  • We showed recently that chronic administration of the mitochondrial inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) in primates produces various dyskinetic movements and dystonic postures associated with selective striatal lesions displaying many similarities with the pathological features of Huntington's disease (HD) [9].
  • The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships among CSF 5-HIAA concentration, history of aggressive behavior, and cerebral glucose metabolism in a group of nonhuman primates whose CSF 5-HIAA had been sampled several times over the preceding 2 years and whose social behavior had been observed since birth [10].

High impact information on Primates

  • The genes encoding KIR that recognize classical MHC molecules have diversified rapidly in human and primates; this contrasts with conservation of immunoglobulin- and lectin-like receptors for nonclassical MHC molecules [11].
  • In primates, oxytocin and its receptor and PGF2alpha and its receptor have been identified in the corpus luteum and/or ovary [12].
  • In primates, uterine prostaglandin production may reflect a vestigial mechanism that has been retained during evolution from an earlier dependence on uterine prostaglandin production for luteolysis [12].
  • However, it remains to be established whether the intraovarian process of luteolysis is mediated by arachidonic acid and/or its metabolite PGF2alpha and whether the central oxytocin pulse generator identified in nonprimate species plays a mediatory role during luteolysis in primates [12].
  • Episodic evolution of pyrin in primates: human mutations recapitulate ancestral amino acid states [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Primates


Biological context of Primates


Anatomical context of Primates


Associations of Primates with chemical compounds

  • We attribute our success to experience with heart-lung transplantation in primates, to the use of cyclosporin A, and to the anatomic and physiologic advantages of combined heart-lung replacement [27].
  • Methamphetamine is a drug that is significantly abused worldwide, Although long-lasting depletion of dopamine and other dopamine nerve terminal markers has been reported in striatum of nonhuman primates receiving very high doses of the psychostimulant, no information is available for humans [28].
  • Placental conversion of androgen to estrogen results in increased maternal plasma estrogen concentration at term in both pregnant nonhuman primates and women [29].
  • Although gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is believed to mediate the hypothalamic control of pituitary gonadotropin secretion, continuous or repeated administration of GnRH or its agonist analogues has been shown to cause paradoxical antifertility effects in several species, including primates [30].
  • Neither gonadal steroid hormones nor the absence of facilitatory neuronal inputs to LHRH neurons is responsible for the low levels of LHRH release before the onset of puberty in primates [31].

Gene context of Primates

  • We have recently demonstrated that humanized anti-CD40L (hu5C8) prevents rejection of mismatched renal allografts in primates [32].
  • We conclude that anergic T cells generated ex vivo by blocking CD28/B7 costimulation can suppress renal allograft rejection after adoptive transfer in nonhuman primates [33].
  • Antibodies against CD14 protect primates from endotoxin-induced shock [34].
  • We show that the Hox-4.5/Hox-4.4 intergenic region can be broadly subdivided into three domains based on DNA conservation between rodents and primates [35].
  • These findings militate against the hypothesis that the absence of APOE type 3 allele predisposes to neurofibrillary tangle formation and support the value of aged primates for exploring mechanisms of amyloid processing and the role of apoE [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Primates


  1. Human urotensin-II is a potent vasoconstrictor and agonist for the orphan receptor GPR14. Ames, R.S., Sarau, H.M., Chambers, J.K., Willette, R.N., Aiyar, N.V., Romanic, A.M., Louden, C.S., Foley, J.J., Sauermelch, C.F., Coatney, R.W., Ao, Z., Disa, J., Holmes, S.D., Stadel, J.M., Martin, J.D., Liu, W.S., Glover, G.I., Wilson, S., McNulty, D.E., Ellis, C.E., Elshourbagy, N.A., Shabon, U., Trill, J.J., Hay, D.W., Ohlstein, E.H., Bergsma, D.J., Douglas, S.A. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Recovery from experimental parkinsonism in primates with GM1 ganglioside treatment. Schneider, J.S., Pope, A., Simpson, K., Taggart, J., Smith, M.G., DiStefano, L. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Human IL-3 and GM-CSF act synergistically in stimulating hematopoiesis in primates. Donahue, R.E., Seehra, J., Metzger, M., Lefebvre, D., Rock, B., Carbone, S., Nathan, D.G., Garnick, M., Sehgal, P.K., Laston, D. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Safety and antitumor activity of recombinant soluble Apo2 ligand. Ashkenazi, A., Pai, R.C., Fong, S., Leung, S., Lawrence, D.A., Marsters, S.A., Blackie, C., Chang, L., McMurtrey, A.E., Hebert, A., DeForge, L., Koumenis, I.L., Lewis, D., Harris, L., Bussiere, J., Koeppen, H., Shahrokh, Z., Schwall, R.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Induction of protective immunity after escherichia coli bladder infection in primates. Dependence of the globoside-specific P-fimbrial tip adhesin and its cognate receptor. Söderhäll, M., Normark, S., Ishikawa, K., Karlsson, K., Teneberg, S., Winberg, J., Möllby, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential expression of amyloid precursor protein mRNAs in cases of Alzheimer's disease and in aged nonhuman primates. Koo, E.H., Sisodia, S.S., Cork, L.C., Unterbeck, A., Bayney, R.M., Price, D.L. Neuron (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Cortical neurons express nerve growth factor receptors in advanced age and Alzheimer disease. Mufson, E.J., Kordower, J.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of SCN lesions on sleep in squirrel monkeys: evidence for opponent processes in sleep-wake regulation. Edgar, D.M., Dement, W.C., Fuller, C.A. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Chronic 3-nitropropionic acid treatment in baboons replicates the cognitive and motor deficits of Huntington's disease. Palfi, S., Ferrante, R.J., Brouillet, E., Beal, M.F., Dolan, R., Guyot, M.C., Peschanski, M., Hantraye, P. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Cerebral glucose metabolism, CSF 5-HIAA levels, and aggressive behavior in rhesus monkeys. Doudet, D., Hommer, D., Higley, J.D., Andreason, P.J., Moneman, R., Suomi, S.J., Linnoila, M. The American journal of psychiatry. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. KIR: diverse, rapidly evolving receptors of innate and adaptive immunity. Vilches, C., Parham, P. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Luteolysis: a neuroendocrine-mediated event. McCracken, J.A., Custer, E.E., Lamsa, J.C. Physiol. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Episodic evolution of pyrin in primates: human mutations recapitulate ancestral amino acid states. Schaner, P., Richards, N., Wadhwa, A., Aksentijevich, I., Kastner, D., Tucker, P., Gumucio, D. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Pargyline prevents MPTP-induced parkinsonism in primates. Langston, J.W., Irwin, I., Langston, E.B., Forno, L.S. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. A hydroxyl radical-like species oxidizes cynomolgus monkey artery wall proteins in early diabetic vascular disease. Pennathur, S., Wagner, J.D., Leeuwenburgh, C., Litwak, K.N., Heinecke, J.W. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of anti-C5a antibodies on the adult respiratory distress syndrome in septic primates. Stevens, J.H., O'Hanley, P., Shapiro, J.M., Mihm, F.G., Satoh, P.S., Collins, J.A., Raffin, T.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Induction of human breast cancer-specific antibody responses in cynomolgus monkeys by a murine monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody. Chakraborty, M., Mukerjee, S., Foon, K.A., Köhler, H., Ceriani, R.L., Bhattacharya-Chatterjee, M. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. A 2-deoxyglucose study of the effects of dopamine agonists on the parkinsonian primate brain. Implications for the neural mechanisms that mediate dopamine agonist-induced dyskinesia. Mitchell, I.J., Boyce, S., Sambrook, M.A., Crossman, A.R. Brain (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Developmental and functional biology of the primate fetal adrenal cortex. Mesiano, S., Jaffe, R.B. Endocr. Rev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Premature adrenarche--normal variant or forerunner of adult disease? Ibáñez, L., Dimartino-Nardi, J., Potau, N., Saenger, P. Endocr. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. A selective human beta3 adrenergic receptor agonist increases metabolic rate in rhesus monkeys. Fisher, M.H., Amend, A.M., Bach, T.J., Barker, J.M., Brady, E.J., Candelore, M.R., Carroll, D., Cascieri, M.A., Chiu, S.H., Deng, L., Forrest, M.J., Hegarty-Friscino, B., Guan, X.M., Hom, G.J., Hutchins, J.E., Kelly, L.J., Mathvink, R.J., Metzger, J.M., Miller, R.R., Ok, H.O., Parmee, E.R., Saperstein, R., Strader, C.D., Stearns, R.A., MacIntyre, D.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification and distribution of 5-HT3 receptors in rat brain using radioligand binding. Kilpatrick, G.J., Jones, B.J., Tyers, M.B. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification of the Ebola virus glycoprotein as the main viral determinant of vascular cell cytotoxicity and injury. Yang, Z.Y., Duckers, H.J., Sullivan, N.J., Sanchez, A., Nabel, E.G., Nabel, G.J. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. 19-Hydroxyprostaglandin E1 as a major component of the semen of primates. Kelly, R.W., Taylor, P.L., Hearn, J.P., Short, R.V., Martin, D.E., Marston, J.H. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. Inhibition of dihydropteridine reductase by novel 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine analogs. Abell, C.W., Shen, R.S., Gessner, W., Brossi, A. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. GAP-43: an intrinsic determinant of neuronal development and plasticity. Benowitz, L.I., Routtenberg, A. Trends Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Heart-lung transplantation: successful therapy for patients with pulmonary vascular disease. Reitz, B.A., Wallwork, J.L., Hunt, S.A., Pennock, J.L., Billingham, M.E., Oyer, P.E., Stinson, E.B., Shumway, N.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Striatal dopamine nerve terminal markers in human, chronic methamphetamine users. Wilson, J.M., Kalasinsky, K.S., Levey, A.I., Bergeron, C., Reiber, G., Anthony, R.M., Schmunk, G.A., Shannak, K., Haycock, J.W., Kish, S.J. Nat. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Production of premature delivery in pregnant rhesus monkeys by androstenedione infusion. Mecenas, C.A., Giussani, D.A., Owiny, J.R., Jenkins, S.L., Wu, W.X., Honnebier, B.O., Lockwood, C.J., Kong, L., Guller, S., Nathanielsz, P.W. Nat. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue binds to luteal cells and inhibits progesterone production. Clayton, R.N., Harwood, J.P., Catt, K.J. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  31. Neurobiological mechanisms of the onset of puberty in primates. Terasawa, E., Fernandez, D.L. Endocr. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. CD40 ligand (CD154) triggers a short-term CD4(+) T cell activation response that results in secretion of immunomodulatory cytokines and apoptosis. Blair, P.J., Riley, J.L., Harlan, D.M., Abe, R., Tadaki, D.K., Hoffmann, S.C., White, L., Francomano, T., Perfetto, S.J., Kirk, A.D., June, C.H. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Renal allograft rejection is prevented by adoptive transfer of anergic T cells in nonhuman primates. Bashuda, H., Kimikawa, M., Seino, K., Kato, Y., Ono, F., Shimizu, A., Yagita, H., Teraoka, S., Okumura, K. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Antibodies against CD14 protect primates from endotoxin-induced shock. Leturcq, D.J., Moriarty, A.M., Talbott, G., Winn, R.K., Martin, T.R., Ulevitch, R.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Comparison of mouse and human HOX-4 complexes defines conserved sequences involved in the regulation of Hox-4.4. Renucci, A., Zappavigna, V., Zàkàny, J., Izpisúa-Belmonte, J.C., Bürki, K., Duboule, D. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Neuropathology and apolipoprotein E profile of aged chimpanzees: implications for Alzheimer disease. Gearing, M., Rebeck, G.W., Hyman, B.T., Tigges, J., Mirra, S.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  37. MAC-1, a new genetically transmitted type C virus of primates: "low frequency" activation from stumptail monkey cell cultures. Todaro, G.J., Benveniste, R.E., Sherwin, S.A., Sherr, C.J. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  38. Treatment with humanized monoclonal antibody against CD154 prevents acute renal allograft rejection in nonhuman primates. Kirk, A.D., Burkly, L.C., Batty, D.S., Baumgartner, R.E., Berning, J.D., Buchanan, K., Fechner, J.H., Germond, R.L., Kampen, R.L., Patterson, N.B., Swanson, S.J., Tadaki, D.K., TenHoor, C.N., White, L., Knechtle, S.J., Harlan, D.M. Nat. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Thromboregulatory manifestations in human CD39 transgenic mice and the implications for thrombotic disease and transplantation. Dwyer, K.M., Robson, S.C., Nandurkar, H.H., Campbell, D.J., Gock, H., Murray-Segal, L.J., Fisicaro, N., Mysore, T.B., Kaczmarek, E., Cowan, P.J., d'Apice, A.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  40. Fetal neuronal grafts in monkeys given methylphenyltetrahydropyridine. Redmond, D.E., Sladek, J.R., Roth, R.H., Collier, T.J., Elsworth, J.D., Deutch, A.Y., Haber, S. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  41. Toward modeling hemorrhagic and encephalitic complications of Alzheimer amyloid-beta vaccination in nonhuman primates. Gandy, S., Walker, L. Curr. Opin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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