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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Peroxynitrite induces HO-1 expression via PI3K/Akt-dependent activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 in PC12 cells.

Peroxynitrite is a strong oxidant produced by rapid interaction between superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals and induces oxidative stress and cell death. Treatment of PC12 cells with 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), a generator of peroxynitrite, induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an antioxidant cytoprotective enzyme. Inhibition of the HO activity by zinc protoporphyrin IX or knockdown of HO-1 gene expression with siRNA exacerbated the SIN-1-induced apoptosis. After SIN-1 treatment, there was a time-related increase in nuclear localization and subsequent binding of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to the antioxidant-responsive element (ARE). Transfection of PC12 cells with dominant-negative Nrf2 abolished the SIN-1- induced increase in Nrf2-ARE binding and subsequent upregulation of HO-1 expression, leading to enhanced cell death. Upon exposure of PC12 cells to SIN-1, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity was increased in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment of cells with LY294002, a pharmacologic inhibitor of PI3K or transfection with the kinase-dead mutant Akt abrogated the SIN-1- induced Nrf2 activation and HO-1 expression. Taken together, these results suggest that peroxynitrite activates Nrf2 via PI3K/Akt signaling and enhances Nrf2-ARE binding, which leads to upregulation of HO-1 expression. The SIN-1- induced HO-1 upregulation may confer the adaptive survival response against nitrosative stress.[1]


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