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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Discrimination between rat thiostatin (T-kininogen) and one of its cystatin-like inhibitory fragments by a monoclonal antibody, and localization of the epitope.

A monoclonal antibody (mAb D3) raised against rat thiostatin (T-kininogen) strongly interacted with a fragment, identified as cystatin-like domain 3, which inhibits cysteine proteinases but did not recognize intact, native thiostatin. The antigen-antibody reaction requires cleavage of the single peptide chain of thiostatin in its inter-domain 2-3 region. This mAb can also differentiate between the two molecular varieties of thiostatin, reacting only with immobilized domain 3 from T1 thiostatin, which differs from the T2 variety by only 10 out of 125 residues. mAb D3 did not react with an N-terminally truncated domain 3 of T1 thiostatin prepared by submaxillary gland kallikrein k10 proteolysis. This suggests that the epitope, or an essential part of it, is located on a stretch of 12 residues at the N-terminal of the T1 thiostatin domain 3. This sequence in T1 thiostatin differs from that in T2 thiostatin by four amino acids, two of which are arginyl residues in T1. Chemical modification of these residues located at positions 246 and 250 decreased the reactivity of T1 domain 3 towards the antibody, suggesting that at least one of them is a critical residue of the epitope. Arginine 246 is part of a small disulfide loop between cysteines 245 and 248 which is also necessary for antibody recognition. This antibody does not change the inhibitory properties of purified domain 3 towards papain or rat liver cathepsin L, indicating that the N-terminal part of domain 3 is not involved in inhibition. mAb D3 was used to demonstrate the presence of inhibitory thiostatin fragments in ascites fluid but not in plasma from normal or turpentine-injected rats.[1]


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