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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma} Agonists Suppress the Production of IL-12 Family Cytokines by Activated Glia.

The IL-12 family of cytokines, which include IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27, play critical roles in the differentiation of Th1 cells and are believed to contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Relatively little is known concerning the expression of IL-12 family cytokines by cells of the CNS, the affected tissue in MS. Previously, we and others demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonists suppress the development of EAE, alter T cell proliferation and phenotype, and suppress the activation of APCs. The present studies demonstrated that PPAR-gamma agonists, including the naturally occurring 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) and the synthetic thiazoladinedione rosiglitazone, inhibited the induction of IL-12p40, IL-12p70 (p35/p40), IL-23 ( p19/p40), and IL-27p28 proteins by LPS-stimulated primary microglia. In primary astrocytes, LPS induced the production of IL-12p40, IL-23, and IL-27p28 proteins. However, IL-12p70 production was not detected in these cells. The 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) potently suppressed IL-12p40, IL-23, and IL-27p28 production by primary astrocytes, whereas rosiglitazone suppressed IL-23 and IL-27p28, but not IL-12p40 in these cells. These novel observations suggest that PPAR-gamma agonists modulate the development of EAE, at least in part, by inhibiting the production of IL-12 family cytokines by CNS glia. In addition, we demonstrate that PPAR-gamma agonists inhibit TLR2, MyD88, and CD14 expression in glia, suggesting a possible mechanism by which these agonists modulate IL-12 family cytokine expression. Collectively, these studies suggest that PPAR-gamma agonists may be beneficial in the treatment of MS.[1]


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