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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A T cell nuclear factor resembling NF-AT binds to an NF-kappa B site and to the conserved lymphokine promoter sequence "cytokine-1".

Nuclear extracts from a nontransformed murine T lymphocyte clone contained two inducible factors that bound to a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) site. One factor was NF-kappa B, and the other was differentiated from NF-kappa B by its mobility in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and its lack of sensitivity to protein kinase C depletion. Competition and methylation interference assays showed that the binding site for the novel factor was limited to nucleotides in the 3' half of the kappa B site. This part of the kappa B site resembled sequences in the binding site for a second inducible nuclear factor of T cells, NF-AT, as well as a conserved sequence found in several lymphokine genes, termed "cytokine-1" ( CK-1). Competition and methylation interference analysis showed that both NF-AT and CK-1 sequences bound a factor similar to the novel kappa B-binding factor and that binding involved a four-nucleotide sequence (TTCC) that the kappa B, CK-1, and NF-AT sites have in common. The complexes that form with each site have characteristics of NF-AT: they are induced upon T cell receptor stimulation, are sensitive to protein synthesis inhibitors and cyclosporin A, and are not sensitive to protein kinase C depletion. Thus, a factor or factors similar to NF-AT can bind to three distinct promoter sequences which occur commonly in several T cell activation genes. These results raise the possibility that related factors binding to kappa B, CK-1, and NF-AT sequences could play a role in the coordinate induction of T cell activation genes. In addition, our results suggest that kappa B and CK-1 sites represent potential cyclosporin-sensitive promoter elements by virtue of their ability to bind an NF-AT-like factor.[1]


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