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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Perturbed gap-filling synthesis in nucleotide excision repair causes histone H2AX phosphorylation in human quiescent cells.

Human histone H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated on serine 139 in response to DNA double-strand breaks and plays a crucial role in tethering the factors involved in DNA repair and damage signaling. Replication stress caused by hydroxyurea or UV also initiates H2AX phosphorylation in S-phase cells, although UV-induced H2AX phosphorylation in non-cycling cells has recently been observed. Here we study the UV-induced H2AX phosphorylation in human primary fibroblasts under growth-arrested conditions. This reaction absolutely depends on nucleotide excision repair (NER) and is mechanistically distinct from the replication stress-induced phosphorylation. The treatment of cytosine-beta-D-arabinofuranoside strikingly enhances the NER-dependent H2AX phosphorylation and induces the accumulation of replication protein A (RPA) and ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) at locally UV-damaged subnuclear regions. Consistently, the phosphorylation appears to be mainly mediated by ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR), although Chk1 (Ser345) is not phosphorylated by the activated ATR. The cellular levels of DNA polymerases delta and epsilon and proliferating cell nuclear antigen are markedly reduced in quiescent cells. We propose a model that perturbed gap-filling synthesis following dual incision in NER generates single-strand DNA gaps and hence initiates H2AX phosphorylation by ATR with the aid of RPA and ATRIP.[1]


  1. Perturbed gap-filling synthesis in nucleotide excision repair causes histone H2AX phosphorylation in human quiescent cells. Matsumoto, M., Yaginuma, K., Igarashi, A., Imura, M., Hasegawa, M., Iwabuchi, K., Date, T., Mori, T., Ishizaki, K., Yamashita, K., Inobe, M., Matsunaga, T. J. Cell. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
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