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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Human chromosome-dependent and -independent pathways for HIV-2 trans-activation.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV types 1 and 2) replication is controlled by the interaction of viral-encoded regulatory proteins and host cellular proteins with the viral long terminal repeat (LTR). The presence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 trans-activator proteins, tat1 and tat2, respectively, greatly increases viral gene expression from their homologous LTRs. It is unclear if the cellular factors that support tat1-directed trans-activation of the HIV-1 LTR are the same for tat2 trans-activation of the HIV-2 LTR. Human-Chinese hamster ovary hybrid cell clones were used to probe for human chromosomes involved in regulating HIV-1 and HIV-2 tat-directed transactivation. DNA transfection experiments showed that the presence of human chromosome 12 in human-hamster hybrid clones was necessary for high-level tat-directed trans-activation of the HIV-1 and -2 LTR. Cross-trans-activation of the HIV-2 LTR by tat1 was found to be chromosome 12 independent. In addition, chromosome 12 did not support trans-activation of another human retrovirus (human T-cell leukemia virus type I). Our results suggest that HIV-1 and -2 have evolved to employ a cellular pathway(s) encoded on human chromosome 12 for supporting homologous tat-directed trans-activation. Trans-activation of the HIV-2 LTR by tat1 in chromosome 12-minus cells suggests that multiple cellular pathways can be recruited to trans-activate the HIV-2 LTR and that these pathways may have been important in an HIV-like progenitor virus.[1]


  1. Human chromosome-dependent and -independent pathways for HIV-2 trans-activation. Hart, C.E., Westhafer, M.A., Galphin, J.C., Ou, C.Y., Bacheler, L.T., Petteway, S.R., Wasmuth, J.J., Chen, I.S., Schochetman, G. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (1991) [Pubmed]
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