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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Genes, Viral

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Disease relevance of Genes, Viral

  • HIV-1 encodes a potent trans-activator protein, tat, which is essential for viral gene expression [1].
  • The first mechanism operates in undifferentiated cells to block expression of M-MuLV and other exogeneously acquired viral genes, such as SV40 and polyoma virus, and does not depend on DNA methylation [2].
  • Herpesviruses establish latent infections in neurons during which only one viral gene (LAT) is expressed, thus the LAT promoter may express foreign genes in latently infected CNS cells [3].
  • These levels are similar to those obtained by the tat gene product, the HIV trans-activating factor responsible for enhancing viral gene expression [4].
  • A viral gene product has not been definitively linked to these malignant diseases, although an EBV nuclear antigen(s) (EBNA) seems to be ubiquitous in EBV-infected cells; indeed, the detection of EBNA by immunofluorescence is often taken as an indication of the presence of the viral genome [5].

High impact information on Genes, Viral

  • This study demonstrates that one of the viral genes necessary for this inhibition, the crmA gene (a cytokine response modifier gene), encodes a serpin that is a specific inhibitor of the interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme [6].
  • This normal cellular protein (NCP98) was shown to be structurally related to P140, sharing the majority of 35S-methionine-labeled tryptic peptides with the viral gene product P140 [7].
  • We conclude that posttranscriptional regulation of cII by host and viral genes is critical for the choice of a developmental pathway [8].
  • The SV40 large T antigen is a multifunctional protein presumed to represent a single translation product of the early viral genes [9].
  • Several lines of evidence, including complementation of glycoprotein processing defects by fusion with uninfected wild-type cells, indicate that the immunoselected variants have stably inherited membrane synthesis abnormalities that are encoded by cellular rather than by viral genes [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Genes, Viral

  • Similarly, the viral gene product pp60src, which is responsible for cellular transformation by avian sarcoma virus (ASV), phosphorylates itself and immunoglobulin directed against pp60src at tyrosine residues [11].
  • We now report that the formation of the 40S--Met-tRNAfMet initiation complex is inhibited in cytoplasmic extracts derived from vaccinia virus-infected cells exposed to cordycepin to block viral gene expression [12].
  • This was achieved by using vaccinia recombinants encoding viral genes expressed at different stages of the virus replicative cycle, a structural glycoprotein gB (vac.gB) and the major 72-kD immediate early nonstructural protein (vac.IE) of HCMV, combined with limiting dilution analysis of the CTL response [13].
  • The plasmids consisted of fusions between the E. coli DNA encoding the first 13 amino acids of the trp operon leader protein and viral genes encoding the 3Cpro and 3Dpol polypeptides [14].
  • Mutations in the viral gene coding for the thymidine kinase (ATP:thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC induced by herpes simplex virus have been obtained by selection of virus resistant to bromodeoxyuridine when grown in thymidine-kinase-deficient LMTK- mouse cells [15].

Biological context of Genes, Viral


Anatomical context of Genes, Viral


Associations of Genes, Viral with chemical compounds


Gene context of Genes, Viral


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Genes, Viral


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  2. Independent mechanisms involved in suppression of the Moloney leukemia virus genome during differentiation of murine teratocarcinoma cells. Niwa, O., Yokota, Y., Ishida, H., Sugahara, T. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Herpesvirus vector gene transfer and expression of beta-glucuronidase in the central nervous system of MPS VII mice. Wolfe, J.H., Deshmane, S.L., Fraser, N.W. Nat. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by DNA damage in human cells. Valerie, K., Delers, A., Bruck, C., Thiriart, C., Rosenberg, H., Debouck, C., Rosenberg, M. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Immortalization of monkey epithelial cells by specific fragments of Epstein-Barr virus DNA. Griffin, B.E., Karran, L. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Viral inhibition of inflammation: cowpox virus encodes an inhibitor of the interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme. Ray, C.A., Black, R.A., Kronheim, S.R., Greenstreet, T.A., Sleath, P.R., Salvesen, G.S., Pickup, D.J. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. A cellular protein is immunologically crossreactive with and functionally homologous to the Fujinami sarcoma virus transforming protein. Mathey-Prevot, B., Hanafusa, H., Kawai, S. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Control of phage lambda development by stability and synthesis of cII protein: role of the viral cIII and host hflA, himA and himD genes. Hoyt, M.A., Knight, D.M., Das, A., Miller, H.I., Echols, H. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Modification of SV40 T antigen by poly ADP-ribosylation. Goldman, N., Brown, M., Khoury, G. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Mutant cells that abnormally process plasma membrane glycoproteins encoded by murine leukemia virus. Fitting, T., Ruta, M., Kabat, D. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
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  13. Human cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T cells. Relative frequency of stage-specific CTL recognizing the 72-kD immediate early protein and glycoprotein B expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses. Borysiewicz, L.K., Hickling, J.K., Graham, S., Sinclair, J., Cranage, M.P., Smith, G.L., Sissons, J.G. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
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  15. Possible peptide chain termination mutants in thymide kinase gene of a mammalian virus, herpes simplex virus. Summers, W.P., Wagner, M., Summers, W.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Specific down-modulation of Notch1 signaling in cervical cancer cells is required for sustained HPV-E6/E7 expression and late steps of malignant transformation. Talora, C., Sgroi, D.C., Crum, C.P., Dotto, G.P. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. A bulge structure in HIV-1 TAR RNA is required for Tat binding and Tat-mediated trans-activation. Roy, S., Delling, U., Chen, C.H., Rosen, C.A., Sonenberg, N. Genes Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. The herpes simplex virus VP16-induced complex: the makings of a regulatory switch. Wysocka, J., Herr, W. Trends Biochem. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Adenovirus 2 early region 1A stimulates expression of both viral and cellular genes. Svensson, C., Akusjärvi, G. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. EBNA-2 and EBNA-LP cooperate to cause G0 to G1 transition during immortalization of resting human B lymphocytes by Epstein-Barr virus. Sinclair, A.J., Palmero, I., Peters, G., Farrell, P.J. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Selective transcription and modulation of resting T cell activity by preintegrated HIV DNA. Wu, Y., Marsh, J.W. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization of the human papillomavirus E2 protein: evidence of trans-activation and trans-repression in cervical keratinocytes. Bouvard, V., Storey, A., Pim, D., Banks, L. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. U94 of human herpesvirus 6 is expressed in latently infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells and blocks viral gene expression in transformed lymphocytes in culture. Rotola, A., Ravaioli, T., Gonelli, A., Dewhurst, S., Cassai, E., Di Luca, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. HIV transcriptional activation by the accessory protein, VPR, is mediated by the p300 co-activator. Felzien, L.K., Woffendin, C., Hottiger, M.O., Subbramanian, R.A., Cohen, E.A., Nabel, G.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Glucocorticoid-resistant lymphoma cell variants that contain functional glucocorticoid receptors. Rabindran, S.K., Danielsen, M., Stallcup, M.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Cloned mouse mammary tumor virus DNA is biologically active in transfected mouse cells and its expression is stimulated by glucocorticoid hormones. Buetti, E., Diggelmann, H. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Transcriptional control of viral gene therapy by cisplatin. Park, J.O., Lopez, C.A., Gupta, V.K., Brown, C.K., Mauceri, H.J., Darga, T.E., Manan, A., Hellman, S., Posner, M.C., Kufe, D.W., Weichselbaum, R.R. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
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  29. In vivo suppression of injury-induced vascular smooth muscle cell accumulation using adenovirus-mediated transfer of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. Guzman, R.J., Hirschowitz, E.A., Brody, S.L., Crystal, R.G., Epstein, S.E., Finkel, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
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  32. CIR, a corepressor linking the DNA binding factor CBF1 to the histone deacetylase complex. Hsieh, J.J., Zhou, S., Chen, L., Young, D.B., Hayward, S.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Correction of the retinal dystrophy phenotype of the RCS rat by viral gene transfer of Mertk. Vollrath, D., Feng, W., Duncan, J.L., Yasumura, D., D'Cruz, P.M., Chappelow, A., Matthes, M.T., Kay, M.A., LaVail, M.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-transformed cells induce angiogenesis and establish functional gap junctions with endothelial cells. El-Sabban, M.E., Merhi, R.A., Haidar, H.A., Arnulf, B., Khoury, H., Basbous, J., Nijmeh, J., de Thé, H., Hermine, O., Bazarbachi, A. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Repression of TFIIH transcriptional activity and TFIIH-associated cdk7 kinase activity at mitosis. Long, J.J., Leresche, A., Kriwacki, R.W., Gottesfeld, J.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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  37. Recombinant, replication-defective adenovirus gene transfer vectors induce cell cycle dysregulation and inappropriate expression of cyclin proteins. Wersto, R.P., Rosenthal, E.R., Seth, P.K., Eissa, N.T., Donahue, R.E. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Isolation and characterization of c-myc, a cellular homolog of the oncogene (v-myc) of avian myelocytomatosis virus strain 29. Vennstrom, B., Sheiness, D., Zabielski, J., Bishop, J.M. J. Virol. (1982) [Pubmed]
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