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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

FDP D-dimer induces the secretion of interleukin-1, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 in a human promonocytic leukemia cell line.

We studied the effect of fibrinogen degradation products D, E, and D-dimer on a human promonocytic leukemia cell line, NOMO-1. After exposure to a 10(-5)-mol/L fragment D or D-dimer, the cells displayed macrophage-like characteristics, such as adherence to plastic surfaces, and showed approximately a twofold increase in response to the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test. The secretion of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) into the medium was markedly stimulated by a 10(-5)-mol/L fragment D, E, and D-dimer, whereas a significant increase in IL-1 beta secretion was observed only in D-dimer-stimulated cells. In addition, D-dimer induced a rapid increase in urokinase-type plasminogen activator on day 1 (0.52 +/- 0.02 ng/mL v 0.07 +/- 0.01 ng/mL in the control culture) and a slow increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 on day 5 (3.9 +/- 1.6 ng/mL v 1.2 +/- 0.2 ng/mL in the control culture). An increase in tissue factor (TF) was also demonstrated on the cell surface of NOMO-1 cells exposed to fragment D or D-dimer by indirect immunofluorescence using an anti-TF monoclonal antibody. Scatchard plot analysis showed that fragment D and D-dimer bound to the NOMO-1 cells with a kd of 3.3 nmol/L and 2.7 nmol/L, respectively. These results suggest that fragment D-dimer specifically stimulates cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage to secrete key substances that regulate blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammation.[1]


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