The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Chromaffin cells in the amphibian urodele Triturus carnifex show ultrastructural features indicative of a vesicle-mediated mode of cell degranulation.

Recently, suggestive evidence for piecemeal degranulation (PMD), a particulate pattern of cell secretion accomplished by vesicle-mediated extracellular transport of granule-stored material, has been provided by electron microscopy investigations in chromaffin cells of different vertebrate species. In this study, chromaffin tissue from the interrenal gland of the amphibian urodede Triturus carnifex has been investigated by quantitative transmission electron microscopy in search for ultrastructural clues indicative of a vesicle-mediated mode of cell degranulation. Interestingly, a single type of chromaffin cell is recognizable in T. carnifex, which undergoes seasonal variations in its adrenaline and noradrenaline granule ratio according to an annual cycle that matches the trend of changes in secondary sexual characters. In this study, we looked for a series of ultrastructural changes regarded as highly specific for PMD. We calculated the percentage of (i) resting, unaltered granules (type 1 granules); (ii) granules with changes indicative of progressive release of secretory materials, that is, granules with lucent areas in their cores, reduced electron density, disassembled matrices, and residual cores (type 2 granules); and (iii) membrane empty containers (type 3 granules) in chromaffin cells of T. carnifex during the annual cycle. We found a significant increase in type 2 and 3 granules, accompanied by a significant decrease in type 1 granules, in the April and November samples. During the same seasonal periods, the number per net cytoplasmic area of 30-100-nm diameter electron-dense vesicles was found to be significantly augmented, and there was also an augmented percentage of chromaffin granules showing blebs or protrusions in their profiles. These ultrastructural data are indicative of an increased vesicle-mediated transport of chromaffin granule products for extracellular release in the amphibian T. carnifex in accordance with the increased rate of catecholamine release. This vesicle-mediated pattern of cell secretion suits the schema of PMD. In an evolutionary perspective, these findings suggest that PMD is a secretory pathway that has been highly conserved throughout vertebrate classes. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.[1]


  1. Chromaffin cells in the amphibian urodele Triturus carnifex show ultrastructural features indicative of a vesicle-mediated mode of cell degranulation. Crivellato, E., De Falco, M., Capaldo, A., Laforgia, V., Ribatti, D., De Luca, A. Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) (2009) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities