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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Blister


High impact information on Blister

  • Identification of a new gene mutated in Fraser syndrome and mouse myelencephalic blebs [5].
  • Mutant DRP-1 causes the mitochondrial matrix to retract into large blebs that are both surrounded and connected by tubules of outer membrane [6].
  • However, the alpha3 domain plays a key role in transducing the death signal, which mediates extensive aggregation of the MHC class I-integrin-actin filament system, giving rise to membrane blebs and pores [7].
  • The clustering of the autoantigens targeted in systemic lupus erythematosus within surface blebs of apoptotic cells generates high concentrations of autoantigen within discrete subcellular packages [8].
  • The larger blebs (apoptotic bodies) contain nucleosomal DNA, Ro, La, and the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Blister

  • There was also an abrupt increase in the release of lactate dehydrogenase and protein after reoxygenation, and cytoplasmic fragments corresponding in size and shape to blebs were recovered by filtration of the effluent perfusate [10].
  • In most cells, estradiol and TRH led to an increase in the number and prominence of microvilli and blebs, whereas CB-154 treatment resulted in a slightly decreased number of microvilli and an increased occurrence of membrane foldings [11].
  • On blebs, acetylcholine receptors, concanavalin A receptors, and stearoyldextran extrinsic model receptor molecules are free to diffuse with a diffusion coefficient (D) approximately 3 x 10(-9) cm2/s, which is close to the value predicted for hydrodynamic drag in the lipid membrane [12].
  • Lipid analog diffusion is also slightly enhanced in blebs as expected of evanescent lipid protein interaction [12].
  • The rapid response to dapsone therapy suggests that dapsone is useful in treating bullous lesions of systemic lupus erythematosus [13].

Biological context of Blister


Anatomical context of Blister


Gene context of Blister

  • Here we report the identification of mutations in an extracellular matrix gene Fras1-related extracellular matrix gene 1 (Frem1) in both the classic head blebs mutant and in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced allele [21].
  • Cells lacking TEL2 function died, with some cells arresting as large cells with three or four small protrusions or "blebs."[24]
  • In embryos from RhoGEF2 or dia germline clones, furrow canals do not form at all or are considerably enlarged and contain cytoplasmic blebs [25].
  • CD7 and CD43 colocalized in small patches away from the membrane blebs, which excluded externalized phosphatidylserine [26].
  • CD45 and CD3 colocalized on large islands on apoptotic blebs protruding from the cell surface [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Blister

  • When examined by light and electron microscopy, cells stored in both University of Wisconsin solution and Hanks' HEPES buffer for 24 hr appeared essentially normal except for the presence of numerous membrane blebs in the Hanks' HEPES buffer group [27].
  • Using confocal microscopy, we found that DR5, caspase-8, and caveolin-1 became progressively concentrated in blebs of plasmalemma as they formed in response to TRAIL [28].
  • 2. Injection of either a Ca2+ chelator or 3',5'-cyclic AMP slowed or halted shortening and promoted re-extension of a cell or collapse of membrane evaginations (blebs) in a manner similar to that following cessation of electrical stimulation [29].
  • Intravenous injection of hyperosmotic solution (mannitol) accelerated the resorption of Hanks'-filled blebs but the injection of hypoosmotic solution (water) had no clear effect [30].
  • TGF-beta concentration in blebs formed around the xenografts (but not in the serum) was higher in animals that underwent transplantation with MMC-treated islets than with untreated islets [31].


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  4. Lowering the calcium concentration in the subretinal space in vivo loosens retinal adhesion. Kita, M., Negi, A., Marmor, M.F. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of a new gene mutated in Fraser syndrome and mouse myelencephalic blebs. Jadeja, S., Smyth, I., Pitera, J.E., Taylor, M.S., van Haelst, M., Bentley, E., McGregor, L., Hopkins, J., Chalepakis, G., Philip, N., Perez Aytes, A., Watt, F.M., Darling, S.M., Jackson, I., Woolf, A.S., Scambler, P.J. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. C. elegans dynamin-related protein DRP-1 controls severing of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Labrousse, A.M., Zappaterra, M.D., Rube, D.A., van der Bliek, A.M. Mol. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. A monoclonal antibody to the alpha2 domain of murine major histocompatibility complex class I that specifically kills activated lymphocytes and blocks liver damage in the concanavalin A hepatitis model. Matsuoka, S., Tsurui, H., Abe, M., Terashima, K., Nakamura, K., Hamano, Y., Ohtsuji, M., Honma, N., Serizawa, I., Ishii, Y., Takiguchi, M., Hirose, S., Shirai, T. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
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  9. Autoantigens targeted in systemic lupus erythematosus are clustered in two populations of surface structures on apoptotic keratinocytes. Casciola-Rosen, L.A., Anhalt, G., Rosen, A. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Cell surface changes and enzyme release during hypoxia and reoxygenation in the isolated, perfused rat liver. Lemasters, J.J., Stemkowski, C.J., Ji, S., Thurman, R.G. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Changes of cell morphology and prolactin secretion induced by 2-Br-alpha-ergocryptine, estradiol, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in rat anterior pituitary cells in culture. Antakly, T., Pelletier, G., Zeytinoglu, F., Labrie, F. J. Cell Biol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Enhanced molecular diffusibility in muscle membrane blebs: release of lateral constraints. Tank, D.W., Wu, E.S., Webb, W.W. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Bullous eruption of systemic lupus erythematosus. Dramatic response to dapsone therapy. Hall, R.P., Lawley, T.J., Smith, H.R., Katz, S.I. Ann. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Apoptotic membrane blebbing is regulated by myosin light chain phosphorylation. Mills, J.C., Stone, N.L., Erhardt, J., Pittman, R.N. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Tissue morphogenesis and vascular stability require the Frem2 protein, product of the mouse myelencephalic blebs gene. Timmer, J.R., Mak, T.W., Manova, K., Anderson, K.V., Niswander, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Blocking protein farnesyltransferase improves nuclear blebbing in mouse fibroblasts with a targeted Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation. Yang, S.H., Bergo, M.O., Toth, J.I., Qiao, X., Hu, Y., Sandoval, S., Meta, M., Bendale, P., Gelb, M.H., Young, S.G., Fong, L.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Hepatotoxicity of the herbal medicine germander: metabolic activation of its furano diterpenoids by cytochrome P450 3A Depletes cytoskeleton-associated protein thiols and forms plasma membrane blebs in rat hepatocytes. Lekehal, M., Pessayre, D., Lereau, J.M., Moulis, C., Fouraste, I., Fau, D. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin is required for H2O2-mediated injury of human endothelial cells. Li, Y., Liu, J., Zhan, X. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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  20. A transformation-associated complex involving tyrosine kinase signal adapter proteins and caldesmon links v-erbB signaling to actin stress fiber disassembly. McManus, M.J., Lingle, W.L., Salisbury, J.L., Maihle, N.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. The extracellular matrix gene Frem1 is essential for the normal adhesion of the embryonic epidermis. Smyth, I., Du, X., Taylor, M.S., Justice, M.J., Beutler, B., Jackson, I.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of cis- and trans-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) on human tumor cell proliferation in diffusion chambers in vivo. Ambrose, K.R., Lowrey, J.S. Cancer Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Apoptotic and necrotic blebs in epithelial cells display similar neck diameters but different kinase dependency. Barros, L.F., Kanaseki, T., Sabirov, R., Morishima, S., Castro, J., Bittner, C.X., Maeno, E., Ando-Akatsuka, Y., Okada, Y. Cell Death Differ. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. TEL2, an essential gene required for telomere length regulation and telomere position effect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Runge, K.W., Zakian, V.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. RhoGEF2 and the formin Dia control the formation of the furrow canal by directed actin assembly during Drosophila cellularisation. Grosshans, J., Wenzl, C., Herz, H.M., Bartoszewski, S., Schnorrer, F., Vogt, N., Schwarz, H., Müller, H.A. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
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  28. TRAIL-induced apoptosis in U-1242 MG glioma cells. Saqr, H.E., Omran, O.M., Oblinger, J.L., Yates, A.J. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Effects of putative modulators of relaxation microinjected into intact amphibian smooth muscle cells. Fay, F.S., Granger, W.C., Shelvin, H.H., Taylor, S.R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of subretinal and systemic osmolality on the rate of subretinal fluid resorption. Negi, A., Marmor, M.F. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. Survival of mitomycin C-treated pancreatic islet xenografts is mediated by increased expression of transforming growth factor-beta. Ise, K., Kanazawa, Y., Sato, Y., Matsuyama, S., Gunji, T., Endo, Y., Hojo, H., Abe, M., Gotoh, M. Transplantation (2004) [Pubmed]
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