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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Silencer region of a chalcone synthase promoter contains multiple binding sites for a factor, SBF-1, closely related to GT-1.

Bean nuclear extracts were used in gel retardation assays and DNase I footprinting experiments to identify a protein factor, designated SBF-1, that specifically interacts with regulatory sequences in the promoter of the bean defense gene CHS15, which encodes the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone synthase. SBF-1 binds to three short sequences designated boxes 1, 2 and 3 in the region -326 to - 173. This cis-element, which is involved in organ-specific expression in plant development, functions as a transcriptional silencer in electroporated protoplasts derived from undifferentiated suspension-cultured soybean cells. The silencer element activates in trans a co-electroporated CHS15-chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase gene fusion, indicating that the factor acts as a repressor in these cells. SBF-1 binding in vitro is rapid, reversible and sensitive to prior heat or protease treatment. Competitive binding assays show that boxes 1, 2 and 3 interact cooperatively, but that each box can bind the factor independently, with box 3 showing the strongest binding and box 2 the weakest binding. GGTTAA(A/T)(A/T)(A/T), which forms a consensus sequence common to all three boxes, resembles the binding site for the GT-1 factor in light-responsive elements of the pea rbcS-3A gene, which encodes the small subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. Binding to the CHS15 -326 to -173 element, and to boxes 1, 2 or 3 individually, is competed by the GT-1 binding sequence of rbcS-3A, but not by a functionally inactive form, and likewise the CHS sequences can compete with authentic GT-1 sites from the rbcS-3A promoter for binding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[1]


  1. Silencer region of a chalcone synthase promoter contains multiple binding sites for a factor, SBF-1, closely related to GT-1. Lawton, M.A., Dean, S.M., Dron, M., Kooter, J.M., Kragh, K.M., Harrison, M.J., Yu, L., Tanguay, L., Dixon, R.A., Lamb, C.J. Plant Mol. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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