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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Silencer Elements, Transcriptional

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Disease relevance of Silencer Elements, Transcriptional


High impact information on Silencer Elements, Transcriptional

  • Deletion of a silencer element in Igf2 results in loss of imprinting independent of H19 [6].
  • We show here that a 1.2-kb H19 upstream sequence functions in cis as a parent-of-origin independent silencing element in Drosophila [7].
  • Here we show that a GAL4 DNA-binding domain-SIR1 hybrid protein (GBD-SIR1), when targeted to an HMR locus containing GAL4-binding sites (UASG), can establish silencing and bypass the requirement for the silencer element HMR-E [8].
  • These zen sequences have the properties of a silencer element and can act over long distances to repress the expression of a heterologous promoter [9].
  • Novobiocin stimulates PA only when the promoter-distal silencing element is present [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Silencer Elements, Transcriptional

  • The purine-rich sequence in the anti-sense strand forms a G-quadruplex, which has been recently implicated in colorectal cancer, and is proposed as a silencer element [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 (2004) 6140] [11].

Biological context of Silencer Elements, Transcriptional

  • We expressed the hybrid proteins in a strain carrying an HMR silencer with GAL4-binding sites (UAS(G)) replacing silencer elements, causing the silencer to become anchored to the nuclear periphery and leading to silencing of a nearby reporter gene [12].
  • We show that targeting of these Sir proteins to the chromosome is sufficient to initiate stable silencing either at a silent mating-type locus lacking a functional silencer element or at a telomere in a strain in which the Rap1p carboxy-terminal silencing domain has been deleted [13].
  • Rap1p binds to silencer elements and telomeric repeats in yeast, where it appears to initiate silencing by recruiting Sir3p and Sir4p to the chromosome through interactions with its carboxy-terminal domain [13].
  • Activity of two different silencer elements of the chicken lysozyme gene can be compensated by enhancer elements [14].
  • These results provide evidence that the silencer element, and the binding of STAT6 to this element, play a permissive role in determining the commitment into Th2 phenotype [15].

Anatomical context of Silencer Elements, Transcriptional


Associations of Silencer Elements, Transcriptional with chemical compounds


Gene context of Silencer Elements, Transcriptional


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Silencer Elements, Transcriptional


  1. A negative element involved in vimentin gene expression. Farrell, F.X., Sax, C.M., Zehner, Z.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Arginine vasopressin promoter regulation is mediated by a neuron-restrictive silencer element in small cell lung cancer. Coulson, J.M., Fiskerstrand, C.E., Woll, P.J., Quinn, J.P. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Repression of polyoma virus DNA replication by 5'-flanking region of mouse DNA polymerase beta gene containing transcriptional silencer elements. Yamaguchi, M., Matsukage, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. SC35 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B proteins bind to a juxtaposed exonic splicing enhancer/exonic splicing silencer element to regulate HIV-1 tat exon 2 splicing. Zahler, A.M., Damgaard, C.K., Kjems, J., Caputi, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl promoter: effects of template supercoiling and cell extracts on promoter activity in vitro. Schnetz, K., Wang, J.C. Nucleic Acids Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Deletion of a silencer element in Igf2 results in loss of imprinting independent of H19. Constância, M., Dean, W., Lopes, S., Moore, T., Kelsey, G., Reik, W. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. An imprinting element from the mouse H19 locus functions as a silencer in Drosophila. Lyko, F., Brenton, J.D., Surani, M.A., Paro, R. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Targeting of SIR1 protein establishes transcriptional silencing at HM loci and telomeres in yeast. Chien, C.T., Buck, S., Sternglanz, R., Shore, D. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. The dorsal morphogen is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that interacts with a long-range repression element in Drosophila. Ip, Y.T., Kraut, R., Levine, M., Rushlow, C.A. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Stimulation of a Chlamydomonas chloroplast promoter by novobiocin in situ and in E. coli implies regulation by torsional stress in the chloroplast DNA. Thompson, R.J., Mosig, G. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Thermodynamics of i-tetraplex formation in the nuclease hypersensitive element of human c-myc promoter. Mathur, V., Verma, A., Maiti, S., Chowdhury, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Perinuclear localization of chromatin facilitates transcriptional silencing. Andrulis, E.D., Neiman, A.M., Zappulla, D.C., Sternglanz, R. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Silencing of genes at nontelomeric sites in yeast is controlled by sequestration of silencing factors at telomeres by Rap 1 protein. Marcand, S., Buck, S.W., Moretti, P., Gilson, E., Shore, D. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Activity of two different silencer elements of the chicken lysozyme gene can be compensated by enhancer elements. Baniahmad, A., Muller, M., Steiner, C., Renkawitz, R. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. T-cell subset-specific expression of the IL-4 gene is regulated by a silencer element and STAT6. Kubo, M., Ransom, J., Webb, D., Hashimoto, Y., Tada, T., Nakayama, T. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Conserved enhancer and silencer elements responsible for differential Adh transcription in Drosophila cell lines. Ayer, S., Benyajati, C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. A silencer element for the lipoprotein lipase gene promoter and cognate double- and single-stranded DNA-binding proteins. Tanuma, Y., Nakabayashi, H., Esumi, M., Endo, H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Transcriptional regulation of alpha IIb integrin gene expression during megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells. Role of a silencer element. Fong, A.M., Santoro, S.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Localized repressors delineate the neurogenic ectoderm in the early Drosophila embryo. Stathopoulos, A., Levine, M. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Definition of T-cell specific DNA-binding factors that interact with a 3'-silencer in the CD4+ T-cell gene Rpt-1. Patarca, R., Singh, R.P., Durfee, T., Freeman, G., Blattner, F.R., Cantor, H. Gene (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. A splice variant of the neuron-restrictive silencer factor repressor is expressed in small cell lung cancer: a potential role in derepression of neuroendocrine genes and a useful clinical marker. Coulson, J.M., Edgson, J.L., Woll, P.J., Quinn, J.P. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Functional characterization of the transcription silencer element located within the human Pi class glutathione S-transferase promoter. Moffat, G.J., McLaren, A.W., Wolf, C.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of the rat m4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene is regulated by the neuron-restrictive silencer element/repressor element 1. Mieda, M., Haga, T., Saffen, D.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. The dynamic character of the G-quadruplex element in the c-MYC promoter and modification by TMPyP4. Seenisamy, J., Rezler, E.M., Powell, T.J., Tye, D., Gokhale, V., Joshi, C.S., Siddiqui-Jain, A., Hurley, L.H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Transcriptional regulation of the rat bradykinin B2 receptor gene: identification of a silencer element. Baptista, H.A., Avellar, M.C., Araujo, R.C., Pesquero, J.L., Schanstra, J.P., Bascands, J.L., Esteve, J.P., Paiva, A.C., Bader, M., Pesquero, J.B. Mol. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Tissue-specific expression of the L1 cell adhesion molecule is modulated by the neural restrictive silencer element. Kallunki, P., Edelman, G.M., Jones, F.S. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. The promoter of IL-18 binding protein: activation by an IFN-gamma -induced complex of IFN regulatory factor 1 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta. Hurgin, V., Novick, D., Rubinstein, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. In situ dissection of the Fab-7 region of the bithorax complex into a chromatin domain boundary and a Polycomb-response element. Mihaly, J., Hogga, I., Gausz, J., Gyurkovics, H., Karch, F. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Critical role of the transcriptional repressor neuron-restrictive silencer factor in the specific control of connexin36 in insulin-producing cell lines. Martin, D., Tawadros, T., Meylan, L., Abderrahmani, A., Condorelli, D.F., Waeber, G., Haefliger, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. A putative silencer element in the IL-5 gene recognized by Bcl6. Arima, M., Toyama, H., Ichii, H., Kojima, S., Okada, S., Hatano, M., Cheng, G., Kubo, M., Fukuda, T., Tokuhisa, T. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Dissection of silencer elements in first intron controlling the human renin gene. Germain, S., Bonnet, F., Fuchs, S., Philippe, J., Corvol, P., Pinet, F. J. Hypertens. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. In vivo cross-linking of nm23/nucleoside diphosphate kinase to the PDGF-A gene promoter. Cervoni, L., Pietrangeli, P., Chichiarelli, S., Altieri, F., Egistelli, L., Turano, C., Lascu, I., Giartosio, A. Mol. Biol. Rep. (2003) [Pubmed]
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