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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Lanthanum inhibits steady-state turnover of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase by replacing magnesium as the catalytic ion.

LaATP is shown to be an effective inhibitor of the calcium ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum because the binding of LaATP to cE.Ca2 results in the formation of lanthanum phosphoenzyme, which decays slowly. Steady-state activity of the calcium ATPase in leaky sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles is inhibited 50% by 0.16 microM LaCl3 (15 nM free La3+, 21 nM LaATP) in the presence of 25 microM Ca2+ and 49 microM MgATP (5 mM MgSO4, 100 mM KCl, 40 mM 4-morpholinepropanesulfonic acid, pH 7.0, 25 degrees C). However, 50% inhibition of the uptake of 45Ca and phosphorylation by [gamma-32P]ATP in a single turnover experiment requires 100 microM LaCl3 (28 microM free La3+) in the presence of 25 microM Ca2+; this inhibition is reversed by calcium but inhibition of steady-state turnover is not. Therefore, binding of La3+ to the cytoplasmic calcium transport site is not responsible for the inhibition of steady-state ATPase activity. The addition of 6.7 microM LaCl3 (1.1 microM free La3+) has no effect on the rate of dephosphorylation of phosphoenzyme formed from MgATP and enzyme in leaky vesicles, while 6.7 mM CaCl2 slows the rate of phosphoenzyme hydrolysis as expected; 6.7 microM LaCl3 and 6.7 mM CaCl2 cause 95 and 98% inhibition of steady-state ATPase activity, respectively. This shows that inhibition of ATPase activity in the steady state is not caused by binding of La3+ to the intravesicular calcium transport site of the phosphoenzyme. Inhibition of ATPase activity by 2 microM LaCl3 (0.16 microM free La3+, 0.31 microM LaATP) requires greater than 5 s, which corresponds to approximately 50 turnovers, to reach a steady-state level of greater than or equal to 80% inhibition. Inhibition by La3+ is fully reversed by the addition of 0.55 mM CaCl2 and 0.50 mM EGTA; this reactivation is slow with t1/2 approximately 9 s. Two forms of phosphoenzyme are present in reactions that are partially inhibited by La3+: phosphoenzyme with Mg2+ at the catalytic site and phosphoenzyme with La3+ at the catalytic site, which undergo hydrolysis with observed rate constants of greater than 4 and 0.05 s-1, respectively. We conclude, therefore, that La3+ inhibits steady-state ATPase activity under these conditions by replacing Mg2+ as the catalytic ion for phosphoryl transfer. The slow development of inhibition corresponds to the accumulation of lanthanum phosphoenzyme. Initially, most of the enzyme catalyzes MgATP hydrolysis, but the fraction of enzyme with La3+ bound to the catalytic site gradually increases because lanthanum phosphoenzyme undergoes hydrolysis much more slowly than does magnesium phosphoenzyme.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[1]


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