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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Ovicidal and larvicidal modes of action of fenoxycarb against the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

The mode of action of the insect growth regulator, fenoxycarb, on embryogenesis of cat flea eggs, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), was evaluated biologically and morphologically. Newly oviposited flea eggs were aged for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, or 72 h and exposed to fenoxycarb (1.1 micrograms/cm2) on filter paper disks for 0 (60 s), 2, 4, 8, 12, or 24 h at 23 +/- 1 degree C and 70 +/- 3% RH. Following exposure, samples of flea eggs were processed for microscopic examination and seeded onto carpet swatches containing flea-rearing medium in order to assess egg hatch, and larval, pupal, and adult development. Fenoxycarb exhibited embryocidal activity against eggs in early blastoderm formation, blastokinesis, and advanced larval development up to hatching. The ovicidal effect of fenoxycarb was not restricted to any specific developmental stage of embryogenesis, and no significant relationship was found between duration of exposure and lethal or inhibitory effects. Indeed, exposure for as little as 60 s produced a lethal inhibition of embryonic development. Conventional microscopy and ultrastructural observations of flea eggs exposed to fenoxycarb showed extensive cellular and tissue damage of the developing embryos, including membrane lysis, burst cells, pycnotic nuclei with coalesced and clumped heterochromatin, swollen and ruptured mitochondria, cellular autolysis, and collapse and discoloration of the eggshell. Fenoxycarb also exhibited larvicidal activity against newly emerged and 24-h-old flea larvae. The midguts of larvae exposed to fenoxybarb appeared disrupted and distorted with large gaps. These data document the ovicidal and larvicidal modes of action of fenoxycarb against the cat flea.[1]


  1. Ovicidal and larvicidal modes of action of fenoxycarb against the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Marchiondo, A.A., Riner, J.L., Sonenshine, D.E., Rowe, K.F., Slusser, J.H. J. Med. Entomol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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