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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Felis

  • METHODS: Mice were orally immunized with H. pylori sonicate, urease, or recombinant enzymatically inactive urease subunits and then challenged with Helicobacter felis [1].
  • Infection of IL-10(-/-) mice with H. felis elicited a severe chronic gastritis and a greatly enhanced Helicobacter-specific Th1 immune response, as compared with wt mice [2].
  • Etiology of cat scratch disease: comparison of polymerase chain reaction detection of Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) and Afipia felis DNA with serology and skin tests [3].
  • Isolation and properties of methanesulfonate-degrading Afipia felis from Antarctica and comparison with other strains of A. felis [4].
  • Chp2 can infect C. abortus, C. felis, and C. pecorum but is unable to infect other members of this genus, including C. caviae and C. pneumoniae, despite the fact that these chlamydial species support the replication of very closely related bacteriophages [5].

High impact information on Felis


Chemical compound and disease context of Felis


Biological context of Felis

  • Female C57BL/6 mice carrying either the lambda/lacI transgene (Big Blue transgenic mice) or the lambda/lacI transgene and deficient in one allele of the p53 tumour suppressor gene (TSG-p53/Big Blue) were inoculated with H felis [16].
  • A probe to the putative coding sequence for the active site of the H. pylori ureB subunit hybridized at low intensity to a 2.8-kb fragment of BamHI-HindIII-digested H. felis DNA, suggesting that the sequences were homologous but not identical, a result confirmed from the recently published sequences of ureA and ureB from H. felis [17].
  • 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA relatedness studies, fatty acid analysis, and PCR of the A. felis ferredoxin gene showed that the isolate is identical to the previously reported A. felis isolate [18].
  • In addition, it was found that divergent lineages from Dip. gracile and Cte. felis lack any clear affiliation with known supergroups, indicating further genetic diversity within the Wolbachia genus [19].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight H. pylori isolates, including the Sydney Strain SS1, three H. felis isolates, and one isolate each of H. hepaticus, H. bilis, H. mustelae, and H. rodentium, were screened for plasmid DNA using a novel method that includes a potassium xanthogenate-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phenol (XSP) buffer [20].

Anatomical context of Felis

  • Within 4 weeks of H. felis infection, there are striking alterations in the character of the gastric epithelium from IL-10(-/-) mice, including a profound loss of parietal and chief cells, focal de novo production of acidic mucins, and marked epithelial proliferation with disordered epithelial architecture [21].
  • There was an approximately two-fold increase in lacI mutations in gastric mucosa harvested from mice infected with H felis and also from non-infected mice heterozygous for the p53 allele relative to wild-type mice [16].
  • When grown in HeLa cells, A. felis was susceptible to amikacin and tobramycin but was resistant to the other compounds tested [22].
  • METHODS: Brain and spinal cord from normal cat Felis domesticus and brain from CD-1 mice were reacted with aPL using indirect immunoperoxidase techniques [23].
  • Trypan blue exclusion was used to estimate the viability of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in the presence of Mycoplasma felis and two strains of M. fermentans (PG18 and incognitus) [24].

Associations of Felis with chemical compounds


Gene context of Felis

  • Next, we infected complement-depleted wild-type control and interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) mice with H. felis [29].
  • Surprisingly, the cytokine response to whole Helicobacter bacteria (H. pylori, H. hepaticus, and H. felis) was mediated not by TLR4 but rather by TLR2 [30].
  • In vitro studies demonstrated that Helicobacter felis activates complement in normal mouse serum but not in serum from Rag2(-/-) mice, indicating that H. felis activates complement through the classical pathway [29].
  • In conclusion, the Apc1638 truncating mutation leads to gastric dysplasia and polyposis of the antrum and pyloric junction, but H. felis infection of the Apc mutant mouse does not lead to an increased rate of gastric neoplasia [31].
  • Infection of B and T cell-deficient RAG-1-/- mice or T cell-deficient TCRbetadelta-/- mice with H. felis resulted in high levels of colonization, but no detectable gastric pathology [32].
  • Chromosome 12q24.3 controls sensitization to cat allergen in patients with asthma from Siberia, Russia [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Felis


  1. Immunization of BALB/c mice against Helicobacter felis infection with Helicobacter pylori urease. Michetti, P., Corthésy-Theulaz, I., Davin, C., Haas, R., Vaney, A.C., Heitz, M., Bille, J., Kraehenbuhl, J.P., Saraga, E., Blum, A.L. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Depletion of neutrophils in IL-10(-/-) mice delays clearance of gastric Helicobacter infection and decreases the Th1 immune response to Helicobacter. Ismail, H.F., Fick, P., Zhang, J., Lynch, R.G., Berg, D.J. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Etiology of cat scratch disease: comparison of polymerase chain reaction detection of Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) and Afipia felis DNA with serology and skin tests. Bergmans, A.M., Groothedde, J.W., Schellekens, J.F., van Embden, J.D., Ossewaarde, J.M., Schouls, L.M. J. Infect. Dis. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolation and properties of methanesulfonate-degrading Afipia felis from Antarctica and comparison with other strains of A. felis. Moosvi, S.A., Pacheco, C.C., McDonald, I.R., De Marco, P., Pearce, D.A., Kelly, D.P., Wood, A.P. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Biological properties and cell tropism of Chp2, a bacteriophage of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydophila abortus. Everson, J.S., Garner, S.A., Fane, B., Liu, B.L., Lambden, P.R., Clarke, I.N. J. Bacteriol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Synergistic inhibitory effects of gastrin and histamine receptor antagonists on Helicobacter-induced gastric cancer. Takaishi, S., Cui, G., Frederick, D.M., Carlson, J.E., Houghton, J., Varro, A., Dockray, G.J., Ge, Z., Whary, M.T., Rogers, A.B., Fox, J.G., Wang, T.C. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Gastric mucosal alpha(4)beta(7)-integrin-positive CD4 T lymphocytes and immune protection against helicobacter infection in mice. Michetti, M., Kelly, C.P., Kraehenbuhl, J.P., Bouzourene, H., Michetti, P. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Mice lacking secretory phospholipase A2 show altered apoptosis and differentiation with Helicobacter felis infection. Wang, T.C., Goldenring, J.R., Dangler, C., Ito, S., Mueller, A., Jeon, W.K., Koh, T.J., Fox, J.G. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Murine CD4 T-cell response to Helicobacter infection: TH1 cells enhance gastritis and TH2 cells reduce bacterial load. Mohammadi, M., Nedrud, J., Redline, R., Lycke, N., Czinn, S.J. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Treatment of Helicobacter gastritis with IL-4 requires somatostatin. Zavros, Y., Rathinavelu, S., Kao, J.Y., Todisco, A., Del Valle, J., Weinstock, J.V., Low, M.J., Merchant, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Association between Helicobacter felis-induced gastritis and elevated glycated hemoglobin levels in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Ukarapol, N., Bégué, R.E., Hempe, J., Correa, H., Gómez, R., Vargas, A. J. Infect. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of purified lipopolysaccharides from strains of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter felis on acid secretion in mouse gastric glands in vitro. Padol, I.T., Moran, A.P., Hunt, R.H. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Serotonin and melatonin, neurohormones for homeostasis, as novel inhibitors of infections by the intracellular parasite chlamydia. Rahman, M.A., Azuma, Y., Fukunaga, H., Murakami, T., Sugi, K., Fukushi, H., Miura, K., Suzuki, H., Shirai, M. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Evaluation of Felis domesticus allergen I as a possible autoallergen in cats with eosinophilic granuloma complex. Wisselink, M.A., van Ree, R., Willemse, T. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Cat is a major allergen in patients with asthma from west Siberia, Russia. Gusareva, E.S., Bragina, E.J., Deeva, E.V., Kazakevich, N.V., Puzyrev, V.P., Ogorodova, L.M., Lipoldová, M. Allergy. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Long-term infection with Helicobacter felis and inactivation of the tumour suppressor gene p53 cumulatively enhance the gastric mutation frequency in Big Blue transgenic mice. Jenks, P.J., Jeremy, A.H., Robinson, P.A., Walker, M.M., Crabtree, J.E. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Immunological and molecular characterization of Helicobacter felis urease. Gootz, T.D., Perez-Perez, G.I., Clancy, J., Martin, B.A., Tait-Kamradt, A., Blaser, M.J. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Cat scratch disease: the rare role of Afipia felis. Giladi, M., Avidor, B., Kletter, Y., Abulafia, S., Slater, L.N., Welch, D.F., Brenner, D.J., Steigerwalt, A.G., Whitney, A.M., Ephros, M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Phylogeny of Wolbachia pipientis based on gltA, groEL and ftsZ gene sequences: clustering of arthropod and nematode symbionts in the F supergroup, and evidence for further diversity in the Wolbachia tree. Casiraghi, M., Bordenstein, S.R., Baldo, L., Lo, N., Beninati, T., Wernegreen, J.J., Werren, J.H., Bandi, C. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. A novel method of extracting plasmid DNA from Helicobacter species. De Ungria, M.C., Tillett, D., Neilan, B.A., Cox, P.T., Lee, A. Helicobacter (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Rapid development of severe hyperplastic gastritis with gastric epithelial dedifferentiation in Helicobacter felis-infected IL-10(-/-) mice. Berg, D.J., Lynch, N.A., Lynch, R.G., Lauricella, D.M. Am. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Afipia felis in axenic medium and in cells. Maurin, M., Lepocher, H., Mallet, D., Raoult, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Monoclonal antiphosphatidylserine antibodies react directly with feline and murine central nervous system. Kent, M., Alvarez, F., Vogt, E., Fyffe, R., Ng, A.K., Rote, N. J. Rheumatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Contrasting effects of Mycoplasma fermentans and M. felis on the viability and chemiluminescence response of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Marshall, A., Miles, R.J., Richards, L. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Monoclonal antibodies to the major feline allergen Fel d I. II. Single step affinity purification of Fel d I, N-terminal sequence analysis, and development of a sensitive two-site immunoassay to assess Fel d I exposure. Chapman, M.D., Aalberse, R.C., Brown, M.J., Platts-Mills, T.A. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Isolation and characterization of a felinine-containing peptide from the blood of the domestic cat (Felis catus). Rutherfurd, K.J., Rutherfurd, S.M., Moughan, P.J., Hendriks, W.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Cat shedding of Fel d I is not reduced by washings, Allerpet-C spray, or acepromazine. Klucka, C.V., Ownby, D.R., Green, J., Zoratti, E. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibilities of three rickettsial species including Rickettsia felis by a quantitative PCR DNA assay. Rolain, J.M., Stuhl, L., Maurin, M., Raoult, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Role for complement in development of Helicobacter-induced gastritis in interleukin-10-deficient mice. Ismail, H.F., Zhang, J., Lynch, R.G., Wang, Y., Berg, D.J. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Intact gram-negative Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and Helicobacter hepaticus bacteria activate innate immunity via toll-like receptor 2 but not toll-like receptor 4. Mandell, L., Moran, A.P., Cocchiarella, A., Houghton, J., Taylor, N., Fox, J.G., Wang, T.C., Kurt-Jones, E.A. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Mice carrying a truncated Apc gene have diminished gastric epithelial proliferation, gastric inflammation, and humoral immunity in response to Helicobacter felis infection. Fox, J.G., Dangler, C.A., Whary, M.T., Edelman, W., Kucherlapati, R., Wang, T.C. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Cellular immune responses are essential for the development of Helicobacter felis-associated gastric pathology. Roth, K.A., Kapadia, S.B., Martin, S.M., Lorenz, R.G. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Chromosome 12q24.3 controls sensitization to cat allergen in patients with asthma from Siberia, Russia. Gusareva, E.S., Bragina, E.J., Buinova, S.N., Chernyak, B.A., Puzyrev, V.P., Ogorodova, L.M., Lipoldová, M. Immunol. Lett. (2009) [Pubmed]
  34. Germ-line p53-targeted disruption inhibits helicobacter-induced premalignant lesions and invasive gastric carcinoma through down-regulation of Th1 proinflammatory responses. Fox, J.G., Sheppard, B.J., Dangler, C.A., Whary, M.T., Ihrig, M., Wang, T.C. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel carboxylesterase-like protein that is physiologically present at high concentrations in the urine of domestic cats (Felis catus). Miyazaki, M., Kamiie, K., Soeta, S., Taira, H., Yamashita, T. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression and genomic structure of the genes encoding FdI, the major allergen from the domestic cat. Griffith, I.J., Craig, S., Pollock, J., Yu, X.B., Morgenstern, J.P., Rogers, B.L. Gene (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. Epitope mapping of the cat (Felis domesticus) major allergen Fel d I by overlapping synthetic peptides and monoclonal antibodies against native and denatured Fel d I. van 't Hof, W., van Milligen, F.J., van den Berg, M., Lombardero, M., Chapman, M.D., Aalberse, R.C. Allergy (1993) [Pubmed]
  38. Application of Bead-ELISA method to detect Helicobacter pylori VacA. Nagata, H., Wada, A., Kurazono, H., Yahiro, K., Shirasaka, D., Ikemura, T., Aoyama, N., Wang, A.P., Makiyama, K., Kohno, S., Hirayama, T. Microb. Pathog. (1999) [Pubmed]
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