The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Intermediates of the gamma-glutamyl cycle in mouse tissues. Influence of administration of amino acids on pyrrolidone carboxylate and gamma-glutamyl amino acids.

GAMMA-Glutamyl transpeptidase, gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase, L-pyrrolidone carboxylate hydrolase, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase, the enzymes of the gamma-glutamyl cycle, were found in mouse brain, liver and kidney. The activity of L-pyrrolidone carboxylate hydrolase was many times lower than the activities of the other enzymes, and thus the conversion of L-pyrrolidone carboxylate to L-glutamate is likely to be the rate-limiting step of the cycle. The specificity of gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase from mouse tissues was similar to that from rat tissues. The concentration of pyrrolidone carboxylate and gamma-glutamyl amino acids, intermediates of the gamma-glutamyl cycle, was determined by a gas chromatographic procedure coupled with electron capture detection. Administration of L-2-aminobutyrate, an amino acid that is utilized as substrate in the reaction catalyzed by gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, led to a large accumulation of gamma-glutamyl-2-aminobutyrate and pyrrolidone carboxylate in mouse tissues. L-Methionine-RS-sulfoximine, an inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, abolished the increase in concentration of pyrrolidone carboxylate. No accumulation of pyrrolidone carboxylate was observed after L-cysteine. The separate administration of several protein amino acids had little effect on the concentration of pyrrolidone carboxylate; however formation of small amounts of the corresponding gamma-glutamyl derivatives (e.g. gamma-glutamylmethionine and gamma-glutamylphenylalanine) was detected. These intermediates are probably formed by transpeptidation between glutathione and the corresponding amino acid, catalyzed by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The concentration of pyrrolidone carboxylate increased significantly after administration of a mixture containing all protein amino acids, the highest increase occurring in the kidney. The results suggest that two separate pathways for the formation of gamma-glutamyl amino acids and pyrrolidone carboxylate exist in vivo. One of these results from the function of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase in glutathione synthesis. The other pathway involves the amino-acid-dependent degradation of glutathione, mediatedby gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Only very small amounts of free intermediates are apparently derived from the latter pathway, suggesting that the gamma-glutamyl amino acids formed in this pathway are either enzyme-bound or are directly hydrolyzed to glutamate and free amino acid.[1]

References

 
WikiGenes - Universities