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Chemical Compound Review

Pyrrolidon     pyrrolidin-2-one

Synonyms: Pyrrolidone, Butyrolactam, PYRROLIDINONE, Pyrrolidone-2, SureCN2389, ...
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Disease relevance of Pyrrolidon


Psychiatry related information on Pyrrolidon


High impact information on Pyrrolidon


Chemical compound and disease context of Pyrrolidon


Biological context of Pyrrolidon


Anatomical context of Pyrrolidon

  • It was more potent than the corresponding 2-pyrrolidone derivative (2A) in alkylating muscarinic receptors in homogenates of the rat cerebral cortex [23].
  • 2. Three, 4 and 5 days after corticosterone treatment there was no significant change in the uptake of 125I-labelled polyvinyl pyrrolidone from standard doses injected into ligated segments of the distal small intestine; nor did the treatment induce precocious replacement of the absorptive cells in this region [24].
  • On the guinea pig ileum, the N-3-methyl substituted imidazolidone analogue 20 was the most potent agonist of the new compounds studied; 20 was 5-fold more potent in inducing contractions of the ileum and had 4-fold higher affinity for ileal muscarinic receptors than the 3-methyl substituted 2-pyrrolidone 6 [25].
  • Large amounts of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid were found in body fluids [26].
  • Separation of CFU-GM from normal human bone marrow mononuclear cells on density gradients of polyvinyl pyrrolidone coated silica gel (Percoll) [27].

Associations of Pyrrolidon with other chemical compounds

  • We show that dye-specific mobility anomalies exist for 5'-fluorophor-labelled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) fragments in CE using the performance-optimized polymer 4 (POP4) buffer sieving matrix, containing the entangled poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) polymer, urea, and 2-pyrrolidinone [28].
  • High-yield amination and cyclization of the chloride 15 to the pyrrolidin-2-one 16 was accomplished by a simple treatment with ammonia [29].
  • [reaction: see text] A facile method for the synthesis of pyrrolidin-2-one fused N-confused calix[4]phyrins is provided by reactions of 5,10,15,20-tetraaryl-2-aza-21-carbaporphyrin with acyl chlorides in the presence of triethylamine [30].
  • Crilvastatin is a drug from the pyrrolidone family that had been shown to induce non-competitive inhibition of rat hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity in vitro [31].
  • Chitosan-polyvinyl pyrrolidone hydrogel does not activate macrophages: potentials for transplantation applications [32].

Gene context of Pyrrolidon


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pyrrolidon


  1. Molecular characterization of pcp, the structural gene encoding the pyrrolidone carboxylyl peptidase from Streptococcus pyogenes. Cleuziat, P., Awadé, A., Robert-Baudouy, J. Mol. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutational analysis of the active site of Pseudomonas fluorescens pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase. Le Saux, O., Gonzales, T., Robert-Baudouy, J. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Isolation and characterization of pcp, a gene encoding a pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase in Staphylococcus aureus. Patti, J.M., Schneider, A., Garza, N., Boles, J.O. Gene (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of the pcp gene encoding the pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase of Bacillus subtilis. Awadé, A., Cleuziat, P., Gonzalès, T., Robert-Baudouy, J. FEBS Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Serum pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase activity in N-methyl-nitrosourea induced rat breast cancer. Carrera, M.P., Ramírez-Expósito, M.J., Valenzuela, M.T., García, M.J., Mayas, M.D., Martínez-Martos, J.M. Horm. Metab. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Potentiation of N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced currents by the nootropic drug nefiracetam in rat cortical neurons. Moriguchi, S., Marszalec, W., Zhao, X., Yeh, J.Z., Narahashi, T. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. The hypoxia model in human psychopharmacology: neurophysiological and psychometric studies with aniracetam i.v. Saletu, B., Grünberger, J. Human neurobiology. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of nefiracetam (DM-9384), a pyrrolidone derivative, on brain monoamine systems. Luthman, J., Lindqvist, E., Kojima, H., Shiotani, T., Tanaka, M., Tachizawa, H., Olson, L. Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de thérapie. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. T-cell response to polyvinyl pyrrolidone is linked to maturity of B cells. Andersson, B., Blomgren, H. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. Enhanced bleomycin-induced pulmonary damage in mice lacking extracellular superoxide dismutase. Fattman, C.L., Chang, L.Y., Termin, T.A., Petersen, L., Enghild, J.J., Oury, T.D. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. The unusually slow relaxation kinetics of the folding-unfolding of pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase from a hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus. Kaushik, J.K., Ogasahara, K., Yutani, K. J. Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Advanced glycosylation end products induce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression via a p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. Chang, P.C., Chen, T.H., Chang, C.J., Hou, C.C., Chan, P., Lee, H.M. Kidney Int. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Unusually slow denaturation and refolding processes of pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase from a hyperthermophile are highly cooperative: real-time NMR studies. Iimura, S., Yagi, H., Ogasahara, K., Akutsu, H., Noda, Y., Segawa, S., Yutani, K. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axes of rats with mammary gland cancer induced by N-methyl nitrosourea. Carrera, M.P., Ramírez-Expósito, M.J., Valenzuela, M.T., García, M.J., Mayas, M.D., Arias de Saavedra, J.M., Sánchez, R., Pérez, M.C., Martínez-Martos, J.M. Horm. Metab. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of oxytetracycline on metacarpophalangeal and distal interphalangeal joint angles in newborn foals. Madison, J.B., Garber, J.L., Rice, B., Stumf, A.J., Zimmer, A.E., Ott, E.A. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Observations on cell-wall deficient forms of Pseudomonas maltophilia. Pease, P.E., Lawson, J.W., Bartlett, R.L., Lane, M., Tallack, J.E., Allan, R. Microbios (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Use of an analog of prostaglandin F2 alpha (ONO-1052) in cows with luteinized ovarian cysts following treatment with an analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (TAP-031) and/or polyvinyl pyrrolidone-iodine solution. Nakao, T., Kawata, K., Numata, Y., Iinuma, M. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Detection of several novel gamma-aminobutyric acid-containing compounds in human CSF. Miller, J.M., Ferraro, T.N., Hare, T.A. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Adenylate cyclase and protein kinase C mediate opposite actions on endothelial junctions. Oliver, J.A. J. Cell. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Rapid single nucleotide polymorphism analysis by primer extension and capillary electrophoresis using polyvinyl pyrrolidone matrix. Barta, C., Ronai, Z., Sasvari-Szekely, M., Guttman, A. Electrophoresis (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Rhodium(II)-catalyzed cyclization of amido diazo carbonyl compounds. Padwa, A., Hasegawa, T., Liu, B., Zhang, Z. J. Org. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization of the pcp gene of Pseudomonas fluorescens and of its product, pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase (Pcp). Gonzales, T., Robert-Baudouy, J. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Alkylating partial muscarinic agonists related to oxotremorine. N-[4-[(2-haloethyl)methylamino]-2-butynyl]-5-methyl-2-pyrrolidones. Ringdahl, B., Roch, M., Katz, E.D., Frankland, M.C. J. Med. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. The effects of corticosterone and cortisone on the uptake of polyvinyl pyrrolidone and the transmission of immunoglobulin G by the small intestine in young rats. Morris, B., Morris, R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. Urea and 2-imidazolidone derivatives of the muscarinic agents oxotremorine and N-methyl-N-(1-methyl-4-pyrrolidino-2-butynyl)acetamide. Nilsson, B.M., Vargas, H.M., Hacksell, U. J. Med. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Hyperglycinemia and propionyl coA carboxylase deficiency and episodic severe illness without consistent ketosis. Wadlington, W.B., Kilroy, A., Ando, T., Sweetman, L., Nyhan, W.L. J. Pediatr. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Separation of CFU-GM from normal human bone marrow mononuclear cells on density gradients of polyvinyl pyrrolidone coated silica gel (Percoll). Kothari, V.C., Advani, S., Gopal, R., Rao, S.G. Haematologica (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Influence of fluorophor dye labels on the migration behavior of polymerase chain reaction--amplified short tandem repeats during denaturing capillary electrophoresis. Hahn, M., Wilhelm, J., Pingoud, A. Electrophoresis (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Practical synthesis of (R)-4-mercaptopyrrolidine-2-thione from L-aspartic acid. Preparation of a novel orally active 1-beta-methylcarbapenem, TA-949. Seki, M., Yamanaka, T., Kondo, K. J. Org. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Synthesis and characterization of pyrrolidin-2-one fused N-confused calix[4]phyrins. Li, X., Chmielewski, P.J., Xiang, J., Xu, J., Li, Y., Liu, H., Zhu, D. Org. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Mechanisms of action in the liver of crilvastatin, a new hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor. Clerc, T., Jomier, M., Chautan, M., Portugal, H., Senft, M., Pauli, A.M., Laruelle, C., Morel, O., Lafont, H., Chanussot, F. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Chitosan-polyvinyl pyrrolidone hydrogel does not activate macrophages: potentials for transplantation applications. Risbud, M., Bhonde, M., Bhonde, R. Cell transplantation. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Radioimmunoassay for activin A/EDF. Method and measurement of immunoreactive activin A/EDF levels in various biological materials. Shintani, Y., Takada, Y., Yamasaki, R., Saito, S. J. Immunol. Methods (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Contraction of fibrillar type I collagen by endothelial cells: a study in vitro. Vernon, R.B., Sage, E.H. J. Cell. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Reduced cholesterol absorption in hamsters by crilvastatin, a new 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor. Hajri, T., Chanussot, F., Férézou, J., Riottot, M., Lafont, H., Laruelle, C., Lutton, C. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. 2-Pyrrolidinone in human cerebrospinal fluid: a major constituent of total gamma-aminobutyric acid. Haegele, K.D., Schwartz, J.J., Schoun, J., Schmitt, A.H., Schechter, P.J. J. Neurochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  37. The mechanism of aubstrate eecognition of pyroglutamyl-peptidase I from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as determined by X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis. Ito, K., Inoue, T., Takahashi, T., Huang, H.S., Esumi, T., Hatakeyama, S., Tanaka, N., Nakamura, K.T., Yoshimoto, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Corneal epithelial permeability of dry eyes before and after treatment with artificial tears. Göbbels, M., Spitznas, M. Ophthalmology (1992) [Pubmed]
  39. Improved separation of rhesus monkey lymphocytes with Percoll. Budzko, D., Madden, D.L., London, W.T., Sever, J.L. Lab. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
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