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Gene Review

Gss  -  glutathione synthetase

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AI314904, GS-A/GS-B, GSH synthetase, GSH-S, Glutathione synthase, ...
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Disease relevance of Gss


High impact information on Gss


Chemical compound and disease context of Gss


Biological context of Gss

  • This is the first observation indicating that GSS is inducible rather specifically by a metal chelator and that induction of GSS, however, is not sufficient to induce apoptosis [8].
  • No significant induction of DNA fragmentation was detected in two murine tumor lines upon GSS transfection [8].
  • GSS deficiency is inherited autosomal recessively, and patients with this disease can be divided into three groups, according to their clinical phenotype [6].
  • Finally, we showed that estrogen increased GSH content, GS and GR activities, and GCL gene expression in the liver of both male and female mice [9].
  • Young mice can increase the cellular availability of GSH, whereas mature mice can increase GSH synthetase activity during oxidative stress [10].

Anatomical context of Gss


Associations of Gss with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Gss


  1. Nitrofurantoin cytotoxicity. In vitro assessment of risk based on glutathione metabolism. Spielberg, S.P., Gordon, G.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Altered gene expression in the liver of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-deficient mice. Habib, G.M., Shi, Z.Z., Ou, C.N., Kala, G., Kala, S.V., Lieberman, M.W. Hepatology (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential metabolomics reveals ophthalmic acid as an oxidative stress biomarker indicating hepatic glutathione consumption. Soga, T., Baran, R., Suematsu, M., Ueno, Y., Ikeda, S., Sakurakawa, T., Kakazu, Y., Ishikawa, T., Robert, M., Nishioka, T., Tomita, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Disruption of the intracellular sulfhydryl homeostasis by cadmium-induced oxidative stress leads to protein thiolation and ubiquitination in neuronal cells. Figueiredo-Pereira, M.E., Yakushin, S., Cohen, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Glutathione depletion-induced apoptosis of Ha-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells can be prevented by melatonin. Chuang, J.I., Chang, T.Y., Liu, H.S. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Glutathione synthetase deficiency. Njålsson, R. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Acute acetaminophen toxicity in transgenic mice with elevated hepatic glutathione. Rzucidlo, S.J., Bounous, D.I., Jones, D.P., Brackett, B.G. Veterinary and human toxicology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Induction of glutathione synthetase by 1,10-phenanthroline. Sun, Y. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Glutathione metabolism during aging and in Alzheimer disease. Liu, H., Wang, H., Shenvi, S., Hagen, T.M., Liu, R.M. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. The effects of oxidative stress on in vivo brain GSH turnover in young and mature mice. Chang, M.L., Klaidman, L.K., Adams, J.D. Mol. Chem. Neuropathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Developmental patterns of zygotes from transgenic female mice with elevated tissue glutathione. Rzucidlo, S.J., Brackett, B.G. J. Exp. Zool. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Vulnerability to glucose deprivation injury correlates with glutathione levels in astrocytes. Papadopoulos, M.C., Koumenis, I.L., Dugan, L.L., Giffard, R.G. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. A spectrophotometric assay of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase in crude extracts from tissues and cultured mammalian cells. Volohonsky, G., Tuby, C.N., Porat, N., Wellman-Rousseau, M., Visvikis, A., Leroy, P., Rashi, S., Steinberg, P., Stark, A.A. Chem. Biol. Interact. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Glutathione conjugation of some xenobiotics by Ascaris suum and Moniezia expansa. Douch, P.G., Buchanan, L.L. Xenobiotica (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. A single mouse glutathione synthetase gene encodes six mRNAs with different 5' ends. Shi, Z.Z., Carter, B.Z., Habib, G.M., He, X., Sazer, S., Lebovitz, R.M., Lieberman, M.W. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Increased transcription and activity of glutathione synthase in response to deficiencies in folate, vitamin E, and apolipoprotein E. Tchantchou, F., Graves, M., Ashline, D., Morin, A., Pimenta, A., Ortiz, D., Rogers, E., Shea, T.B. J. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Glutathione cycle dependency of ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced lipid peroxidation in mouse proximal renal tubules. Okada, S., Minamiyama, Y., Hamazaki, S., Toyokuni, S., Sotomatsu, A. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Enhancement of the activity of doxorubicin by inhibition of glutamate transporter. Sadzuka, Y., Sugiyama, T., Suzuki, T., Sonobe, T. Toxicol. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Cysteamine in combination with N-acetylcysteine prevents acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Peterson, T.C., Brown, I.R. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Induction of nitric oxide synthesis in J774 cells lowers intracellular glutathione: effect of modulated glutathione redox status on nitric oxide synthase induction. Hothersall, J.S., Cunha, F.Q., Neild, G.H., Norohna-Dutra, A.A. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Intermediates of the gamma-glutamyl cycle in mouse tissues. Influence of administration of amino acids on pyrrolidone carboxylate and gamma-glutamyl amino acids. Orlowski, M., Wilk, S. Eur. J. Biochem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. N-acteyl cysteine alleviates oxidative damage to central nervous system of ApoE-deficient mice following folate and vitamin E-deficiency. Tchantchou, F., Graves, M., Rogers, E., Ortiz, D., Shea, T.B. J. Alzheimers Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
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