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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effects of D-glucosamine and 6-azauridine on nucleotide contents, 5-fluorouridine uptake, and cytotoxicity in TA3 mammary tumor cells.

In TA3 mammary carcinoma cells in suspension culture, D-glucosamine X HCl (GlcN) induced a diversion of uridylate from UTP into UDP-N-acetylhexosamines, reducing the intracellular pool of UTP and eliciting an increased rate of de novo uridylate synthesis. This rise in de novo synthesis was completely suppressed by addition of 6-azauridine (6-AzaUrd) to the cell suspension in vitro or in the solid TA3 mammary tumor in NMRI mice in vivo. A synergistic depletion of UTP pools to less than 6% of the UTP in controls was observed in TA3 cell suspensions exposed to GlcN and 6-AzaUrd. In solid TA3 tumors in vivo, UTP was reduced by this combination to 19% of the control value. A high sensitivity of the solid tumor to inhibition of pyrimidine synthesis de novo was indicated by the reduction of the UTP content after administration of 6-AzaUrd alone. UTP deficiency in TA3 tumor cells was accompanied by CTP deficiency. In addition, 6-AzaUrd caused a lowering of GTP in the neoplastic tissue. Host liver was resistant to 6-AzaUrd but responded to treatment with GlcN with a decrease in UTP to 67%. Uridine-cytidine kinase was less inhibited in the presence of lowered UTP and CTP, which are potent feedback inhibitors of the enzyme, and enabled an enhanced formation of phosphorylated derivatives of 5-fluorouridine (FUrd). Aside from the formation of 5-fluoro-UTP, we have identified 5-fluoro-UDP-N-acetylhexosamines (FUDPHexNAc), which accumulated when FUrd and GlcN were sequentially administered. Treatment of TA3 cells with FUrd after a pretreatment with 6-AzaUrd and GlcN resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in [14C]FUrd uptake and a duplication of 5-fluorouridylate incorporation into the RNA. The proportion of FUDPHexNAc increased to 58% of the phosphorylated FUrd metabolites, as compared to 6% in TA3 cells exposed exclusively to FUrd. In vivo chemotherapy of mice bearing TA3 ascites tumors was most effective with respect to tumor growth inhibition and animal survival when GlcN and FUrd were combined.[1]


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